~ REFERENCES ~

Chapter 1 – Contemplating Pregnancy

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2.         Murphy V, Namazy J, Powell H, Schatz M, Chambers C, Attia J, et al. A meta-analysis of adverse perinatal outcomes in women with asthma. BJOG 2011;118:1314-1323. [Cited 16-Oct-11]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21749633

3.         Centers for Disease Control & Prevention [Preconception Care Questions and Health Care.] May 2012. [Cited 14-Dec-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/preconception/planning.html

4.         Centers for Disease Control & Prevention [Preconception Care Questions and Health Care.] May 2012. [Cited 14-Dec-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/preconception/planning.html

5.         Ismail-Beigi F, Catalano PM, Hanson RW. Metabolic programming: fetal origins of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the adult. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep;291(3):E439-40.

6.         Barker DJP. Mothers, babies and health in later life. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone 1998.

7.         Vignini A, Raffaelli F, Cester A, Iannilli A, Cherubini V, Mazzanti L, Nanetti L. Environmental and genetical aspects of the link between pregnancy, birth size, and type 2 diabetes. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2012 May;8(3):155-61.

8.         Calkins K, Devaskar SU. Fetal origins of adult disease. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2011 Jul;41(6):158-76.

9.         Dyer JS, Rosenfeld CR. Metabolic imprinting by prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal overnutrition: a review. Semin Reprod Med. 2011 May;29(3):266-76.

10.     Boney CM, Verma A, Tucker R, Vohr BR. Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics. 2005 Mar;115(3):e290-6.

11.     Ovesen P, Rasmussen S, Kesmodel U. Effect of pre-pregnancy maternal overweight and obesity on pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Aug;118(2 Pt 1):305-12.

12.     Boney CM, Verma A, Tucker R, Vohr BR. Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics. 2005 Mar;115(3):e290-6.

13.     Mandal D, Manda S, Rakshi A, Dey RP, Biswas SC, Banerjee A. Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a prospective analysis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2011 Aug;59:486-9.

14.     Ovesen P, Rasmussen S, Kesmodel U. Effect of pre-pregnancy maternal overweight and obesity on pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Aug;118(2 Pt 1):305-12.

15.     Hobbs CA, Cleves MA, Karim MA, Zhao W, MacLeod SL. Maternal folate-related gene environment interactions and congenital heart defects. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug;116(2 Pt 1):316-22.

16.     Oken E, Taveras EM, Kleinman KP, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. Gestational weight gain and child adiposity at age 3 years. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;196(4):322.e1-8.

17.     Gale CR, Javaid MK, Robinson SM, Law CM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C. Maternal size in pregnancy and body composition in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Oct;92(10):3904-11.

18.     Vickers MH. Developmental programming of the metabolic syndrome - critical windows for intervention. World J Diabetes. 2011 September 15;2(9): 137–148.

19.     U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Publication No. U0036. Available from: www.health.gov/paguidelines

20.     Ramadhani MK, Grobbee DE, Bots ML, Castro Cabezas M, Vos LE, Oren A, et al. Lower birth weight predicts metabolic syndrome in young adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA)-study. Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jan;184(1):21-7.

21.     Bihl GR. Intrauterine growth and disease in later life. Highlights from the 9th Asian congress of nephrology. February 2003. Available from: www.medscape.com/viewarticle/453242

22.     Barker DJ. Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ. 1995 July;311:171–174. www.bmj.com/content/311/6998/171?ijkey=2997c5e1ebf782339057289d2fbc426b040b0ae5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

23.     Briana DD, Malamitsi-Puchner A. Intrauterine growth restriction and adult disease: the role of adipocytokines. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Mar;160(3):337-47.

24.     Grotto D, Zied E. The Standard American Diet and its relationship to the health status of Americans. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec;25(6):603-12.

25.     Office on women’s health. US Department of Health and Human Services. Women on track with health screenings; healthy eating and exercise lacking. May 2007. [Cited 4-Oct-07]. Available from: www.womenshealth.gov/news/pr/2007.NWHW.htm

26.     What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008. Day 1 dietary intake data, weighted; MyPyramid Food Intake Patterns. [Cited 6-Nov-11]. Available from: www.mypyramid.gov/downloads/MyPyramid_Food_Intake_Patterns.pdf

27.     Leung BM, Kaplan BJ. Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link—a review of the literature. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Sep;109(9):1566-75.

28.     Knudsen VK, Orozova-Bekkevold IM, Mikkelsen TB, Wolff S, Olsen SF. Major dietary patterns in pregnancy and fetal growth. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;62(4):463-70.

29.     Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, Selvin S, Schaffer DM. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Jul 15;160(2):102-9.

30.     Crider KS, Bailey LB, Berry RJ. Folic acid food fortification-its history, effect, concerns, and future directions. Nutrients. 2011 Mar;3(3):370-84.

31.     Tinker SC, Cogswell ME, Devine O, Berry RJ. Folic acid intake among U.S. women aged 15-44 years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006. Am J Prev Med. 2010 May;38(5):534-42.

32.     Shiraishi M, Haruna M, Matsuzaki M, Ota E, Murayama R, Murashima S. Association between the serum folate levels and tea consumption during pregnancy. Biosci Trends. 2010 Oct;4(5):225-30.

33.     Allan K, Devereux G. Diet and asthma: nutrition implications from prevention to treatment. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Feb;111(2):258-68.

34.     Alwan NA, Greenwood, DC, Simpson, NA, McArdle HJ, Godfrey KM, Cade JE. Dietary iron during early pregnancy and birth outcomes in a cohort of British women. Hum Reprod. 2011 April;26(4): 911–9.

35.     Casanueva E, Viteri FE. Iron and oxidative stress in pregnancy. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 2):1700S-1708S.

36.     Leung BM, Kaplan BJ. Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link—a review of the literature. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Sep;109(9):1566-75.

37.     Depression and Pregnancy. Office of Teratology Information Specialists. January 2011. [Cited 5-Nov-11]. Available from: www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#4

38.     Diabetes and Pregnancy. Office of Teratology Information Specialists. April 2011. [Cited 5-Nov-11]. Available from: www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#4

39.     Ziegler O, Sirveaux MA, Brunaud L, Reibel N, Quilliot D. Medical follow up after bariatric surgery: nutritional and drug issues. General recommendations for the prevention and treatment of nutritional deficiencies. Diabetes Metab. 2009 Dec;35(6 Pt 2):544-57.

40.     Okun ML, Schetter CD, Glynn LM. Poor sleep quality is associated with preterm birth. Sleep. 2011 Nov 1;34(11):1493-8.

41.     Organization of Teratology Specialists. Alcohol and Pregnancy. September 2010. [Cited 12-Nov-11]. Available from: www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#6

42.     von Kries R, Bolte G, Baghi L, Toschke AM; GME Study Group. Parental smoking and childhood obesity—is maternal smoking in pregnancy the critical exposure? Int J Epidemiol. 2008 Feb;37(1):210-6.

43.     Salmasi G, Grady R, Jones J, McDonald SD; Knowledge Synthesis Group. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(4):423-41.

44.     March of Dimes. Smoking During Pregnancy. April 2010. [Cited 13-Nov-11]. Available from: www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/alcohol_smoking.html

45.     Cohen LS, Altshuler LL, Harlow BL, Nonacs R, Newport DJ, Viguera AC, et al. Relapse of major depression during pregnancy in women who maintain or discontinue antidepressant treatment. JAMA. 2006 Feb 1;295(5):499-507. Erratum in: JAMA. 2006 Jul 12;296(2):170.

46.     European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) (2011, July 5). Gum disease can increase the time it takes to become pregnant. ScienceDaily. [Cited 30-Jun-12]. Available from: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110705071548.htm

47.     Boggess KA, Edelstein BL. Oral health in women during preconception and pregnancy: implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Matern Child Health J. 2006 Sep;10(5 Suppl):S169-74.

48.     Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. Use of multivitamins, intake of B vitamins, and risk of ovulatory infertility. Fertil Steril. 2008 Mar;89(3):668-76.

49.     Jung A, Strauss P, Lindner HJ, Schuppe HC. Influence of heating car seats on scrotal temperature. Fertil Steril. 2008 Aug;90(2):335-9. Epub 2007 Oct 24.

50.     Ivell R. Lifestyle impact and the biology of the human scrotum. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2007 Apr 20;5: 15.

51.     Moretti ME, Bar-Oz B, Fried S, Koren G. Maternal hyperthermia and the risk for neural tube defects in offspring: systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology. 2005 Mar;16(2):216-9.

52.     Suarez L, Felkner M, Hendricks K. The effect of fever, febrile illnesses, and heat exposures on the risk of neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004 Oct;70(10):815-9.

53.     Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ, Reamer P, Gunn RD, Allan G. Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1999 Apr 29;340(17):1314-20.

54.     Iuorno MJ, Jakubowicz DJ, Baillargeon JP, Dillon P, Gunn RD, Allan G, et al. Effects of d-chiro-inositol in lean women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocr Pract. 2002 Nov-Dec;8(6):417-23.

55.     Anderson J. Nutrition and oral contraceptives. December 2010. [Cited 22-Nov-11]. Available from: www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09323.html

56.     Mahmud M, Mazza D. Preconception care of women with diabetes: a review of current guideline recommendations. BMC Women’s Health. 2010 Jan 31;10:5. [Cited 20-Nov-11]. Available from: www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6874/10/5

Chapter 2 – Fueling Your Fertility

1.         Society for Reproductive Medicine. Weight [Cited 13-Nov-11]. Available from: www.reproductivefacts.org/topics/detail.aspx?id=1763

2.         Beyene J, Han Z, Liao G, Mulla S, McDonald SD; Knowledge Synthesis Group. Maternal underweight and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Feb;40(1):65-101.

3.         Nohr EA, Vaeth M, Rasmussen S, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Olsen J. Waiting time to pregnancy according to maternal birthweight and prepregnancy BMI. Hum Reprod. 2009 Jan;24(1):226-32.

4.         Position of the American Dietetic Association and American Society for Nutrition. Obesity, reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109:918-927.

5.         Position of the American Dietetic Association and American Society for Nutrition. Obesity, reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109:918-927.

6.         Clark AM, Ledger W, Galletly C, Tomlinson L, Blaney F, Wang X, et al. Weight loss results in significant improvement in pregnancy and ovulation rates in anovulatory obese women. Hum Reprod. 1995 Oct;10(10):2705-12.

7.         Ramlau-Hansen CH, Thulstrup AM, Nohr EA, Bonde JP, Sørensen TI, Olsen J. Subfecundity in overweight and obese couples. Hum Reprod. 2007 Jun;22(6):1634-7.

8.         Chavarro JE, Toth TL, Wright DL, Meeker JD, Hauser R. Body mass index in relation to semen quality, sperm DNA integrity, and serum reproductive hormone levels among men attending an infertility clinic. Fertil Steril. 2010 May 1;93 (7):2222-31.

9.         Kay VJ, Barratt CLR. Male obesity: impact on fertility. British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 2009 Sept/Oct;9(5): 237-241.

10.     Grassi A. The Dietitian’s Guide to Polycistic Ovary Syndrome. Luca Publishing. Haverford PA. 2007.

11.     Brand-Miller J, Colagiui, S, Foster-Powell K, and Wolever, TM. The New Glucose Revolution, 3rd edition, Marlowe & Company. New York. 2007. p. 121.

12.     Agrassi A. Obstructive sleep apnea and PCOS. [Cited 29-Jan-12]. Available from: www.pcosnutrition.com/links/blogs/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-pcos.html.

13.     Farrell K, Antoni M. Insulin resistance, obesity, inflammation and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: biobehavioral mechanisms and interventions. Fertil Steril. 2010 October;94(5): 1565–1574.

14.     Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. Caffeinated and alcoholic beverage intake in relation to ovulatory disorder infertility. Epidemiology. 2009 May;20(3):374-81.

15.     Hackney AC. Effects of endurance exercise on the reproductive system of men: the "exercise-hypogonadal male condition". J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Oct;31(10):932-8.

16.     Melo MA, Soares SR. Cigarette smoking and reproductive function. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun;20(3):281-91.

17.     American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Smoking and Infertility. 11/2003 [Cited 25-Nov-11]. Available from: www.asrm.org/FactSheetsandBooklets/

18.     Marchetti F, Rowan-Carroll A, Williams A, Polyzos A, Berndt-Weis M, Yauk C. Side stream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Available from: www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1106896108

19.     Elizabeth H. Ruder, Terryl J. Hartman, Jeffrey Blumberg, Marlene B. Goldman. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Jul-Aug;14(4):345-57.

20.     Fasano A, Berti I, Gerarduzzi T, Not T, Colletti RB, Drago S, et al. Prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk and not-at-risk groups in the United States: a large multicenter study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Feb 10;163(3):286-92.

21.     Green PHR, Stavropoulos SN, Panagi SG, Goldstein SL, Mcmahon DJ, Absan H, et al.Characteristics of adult celiac disease in the USA: results of a national survey. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Jan;96(1):126-31.

22.     “Celiac Disease.” National Digestive Diseases Information Claring House. [Cited 3-Dec-11] Available from: digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/celiac/#what

23.     Ladenson PW, Singer PA, Ain KB, Bagchi N, Bigos ST, Levy EG, et al. American Thyroid Association guidelines for detection of thyroid dysfunction. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jun 12;160(11):1573-5.

24.     Jana SK, K NB, Chattopadhyay R, Chakravarty B, Chaudhury K.Upper control limit of reactive oxygen species in follicular fluid beyond which viable embryo formation is not favorable. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Jul;29(4):447-51.

25.     Agarwal A, Gupta S and Sharma RK. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction. Reproductive biology and endocrinology. 2005 July14;(3):28.

26.     Galan P, Viteri FE, Bertrais S, Czernichow S, Faure H, Arnaud J, et al. Serum concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamin C and E, zinc, and selenium are influenced by age, diet smoking status, alcohol consumption and corpulence in a general French adult population. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005 Oct;59(10): 1181-1190.

27.     Ebisch IM, Thomas CM, Peters WH, Braat DD, Steegers-Theunissen RP. The importance of folate, zinc and antioxidants in the pathogenesis and prevention of sub fertility. Human Reproductive Update 2007 Mar-April;13(2):163-174. Review.

28.     Gharagozloo P, Aitken RJ. The role of sperm oxidative stress in male infertility and the significance of oral antioxidant therapy. Hum Reprod. 2011 Jul;26(7):1628-40.

29.     Schmid TE, Eskenazi B, Marchetti F, Young S, Weldon RH, Baumgartner A, Anderson D, Wyrobek AJ. Fertil Steril. Micronutrients intake is associated with improved sperm DNA quality in older men. 2012 Nov;98(5):1130-1137.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.07.1126. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

30.     U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page. [Cited 2-3-12]. Available from: www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata/orac

31.     Kubota C, McCune LM, Stendell-Hollis NR, Thomson CA. Cherries and health: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Jan;51(1):1-12.

32.     Balabanič D, Rupnik M, Klemenčič AK. Negative impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds on human reproductive health. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2011;23(3):403-16.

33.     Said TM, Ranga G, Agarwal A. Relationship between semen quality and tobacco chewing in men undergoing infertility evaluation. Fertil Steril 2005 Sep;84(3):649-53.

34.     Deepinder F, Makker K, Agarwal A. Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007 Sep;15(3):266-70.

35.     De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro. PLoS One. 2009 Jul 31;4(7):e6446.

36.     World Health Organization. Electromagnetic fields and public health: fact sheet #193. June 2011. [Cited 30-Jun-12] Available from: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/

37.     Du Plessis SS, Cabler S, McAlister DA, Sabanegh E, Agarwal A. The effect of obesity on sperm disorders and male infertility. Nat Rev Urol. 2010 Mar;7(3):153-61.

38.     Anway MD, Leathers C, Skinner MK. Endocrine disruptor vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational adult-onset disease. Endocrinology 2006 Dec;147(12): 5515-5523.

39.     Pauli EM, Legro RS, Demers LM, Kunselman AR, Dodson WC, Lee PA. Diminished paternity and gonadal function with increasing obesity in men. Fertil Steril. 2008 Aug;90(2):346-51.

40.     Eskenazi B, Kidd SA, Marks AR, Sloter E, Block G, Wyrobek AJ. Antioxidant intake is associated with semen quality in healthy men. Hum Reprod. 2005 Apr;20(4):1006-12.

41.     Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):231-7.

42.     Attaman JA, Toth TL, Furtado J, Campos H, Hauser R, Chavarro JE. Dietary fat and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic. Hum Reprod. 2012 May;27(5):1466-74.

43.     Tavilani H, Doosti M, Nourmohammadi I, Mahjub H, Vaisiraygani A, Salimi S, et al. Lipid composition of spermatoazoa in normozoospermic and athenozoospermic males. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2007 July;77(1): 45-50.

44.     Chavarro JE, Furtado J, Toth TL, Ford J, Keller M, Campos H, et al. Trans-fatty acid levels in sperm are associated with sperm concentration among men from an infertility clinic. Fertil Steril. 2011 Apr;95(5):1794-7.

45.     Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;63(1):78-86.

46.     Katcher HI, Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Gillies PJ, Demers LM, Bagshaw DM, et al. The effects of a whole grain enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risks in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(1)79-90.

47.     Crozier SJ, Preston AG, Hurst JW, Payne MJ, Mann J, Hainly L, et al. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products. Chem Cent J. 2011 Feb 7;5:5.

48.     American Chemical Society (2009, November 11). New evidence that dark chocolate helps ease emotional stress. Science Daily. [Cited 4-Feb-12]. Available from: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091111123612.htm

49.     Robbins WA, Xun L, Fitzgerald LZ, Esguerra S, Henning SM, Carpenter CL. Walnuts improve semen quality in men consuming a Western-style diet: randomized control dietary intervention trial. Biol Reprod. 2012 Oct 25;87(4):101. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.112.101634.

Chapter 3 – The Knowledgeable Pregnancy

1.         Siega-Riz AM, Herrmann TS, Savitz DA, Thorp JM. Frequency of eating during pregnancy and its effect on preterm delivery. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2001 Apr 1;53(7): 647-652

2.         Institute of Food Technologists. (2012, June 29). Skipping breakfast can lead to unhealthy habits all day long. Science Daily. [Cited 1-Jul-12]. Available from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120629143045.htm

3.         Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Gale CR, Dennison EM, Boucher BJ, et al. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2006 Jan 7;367(9504):36-43.

4.         Hofmeyer GJ, Duley L, Atallah A. Dietary calcium supplementation for prevention of hypertension related problems: a systematic review and commentary. BJOG. 2007 Aug;114(8): 933-43.

5.         Imdad A, Jabeen A, Bhutta ZA. Role of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing risk of developing gestational hypertensive disorders: a meta-analysis of studies from developing countries. BMC Public Health. 2011 Apr 13;11 Suppl 3:S18. Review.

6.         Bodnar LM, Catov JM, Simhan HN, Holick MF, Powers RW, Roberts JM. Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(9):3517–3522.

7.         Sørensen IM, Joner G, Jenum PA, Eskild A, Torjesen PA, Stene LC. Maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Diabetes. 2012 Jan;61(1):175-8.

8.         Whitehouse AJ, Holt BJ, Serralha M, Holt PG, Kusel MM, Hart PH. Maternal Serum Vitamin D Levels During Pregnancy and Offspring Neurocognitive Development. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129(3):485-93.

9.         Belderbos ME, Houben ML, Wilbrink B, Lentjes E, Bloemen EM, Kimpen JL, et al. Cord blood vitamin D deficiency is associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2011 Jun;127(6):e1513-20.

10.     Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Powers RW, Frank MP, Cooperstein E, Roberts JM. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):447-52.

11.     Harvey NC, Javaid K, Bishop N, Kennedy S, Papageorghiou AT, Fraser R, Gandhi SV, Schoenmakers I, Prentice A, Cooper C. MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012 Feb 7;13(1):13.

12.     Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM; Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. July 2011;96(7):1911–1930.

13.     Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.

14.     Vitamin D and calcium; updated Dietary Reference Intakes. Health Canada. December 2010. [Cited 25-Feb-12]. Available from: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/vitamin/vita-d-eng.php

15.     Vitamin D supplementation: Recommendations for Canadian mothers and infants First Nations, Inuit and Métis Health Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12(7):583-9. Reaffirmed March 2012. [Cited 17-Nov-12] Available from: www.cps.ca/english/statements/ii/fnim07-01.htm#RECOMMENDATIONS

16.     Vidailhet M, Mallet E, Bocquet A, Bresson JL, Briend A, Chouraqui JP, et al. Comité de nutrition de la Société française de pédiatrie. Vitamin D: Still a topical matter in children and adolescents. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics. Arch Pediatr. 2012 Mar;19(3):316-28.

17.     Li W, Green TJ, Innis SM, Barr SI, Whiting SJ, Shand A, et al. Suboptimal vitamin D levels in pregnant women despite supplement use. Can J Public Health. 2011 Jul-Aug;102(4):308-12.

18.     Vitamin D Council. UVB exposure: sunlight and indoor tanning. September 2011. [Cited 17-Nov-12]. Available from: www.vitamindcouncil.org/about-vitamin-d/how-to-get-your-vitamin-d/uvb-exposure-sunlight-and-indoor-tanning/

19.     Edvardsen K, Brustad M, Engelsen O, Aksnes L The solar UV radiation level needed for cutaneous production of vitamin D3 in the face. A study conducted among subjects living at a high latitude (68 degrees N). Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 2007 Jan;6(1):57-62.

20.     British Paediatric Respiratory Society British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. A survey of healthcare professionals’ awareness of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, infancy and childhood- midwives, gps and health visitors have their say. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96:A16-A18 doi:10.1136/adc.2011.212563.32

21.     Scholl TO. Iron status during pregnancy: setting the stage for mother and infant. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005 May;81(5):1218S-1222S.

22.     Jonnalagadda SS, Harnack L, Liu RH, McKeown N, Seal C, Liu S, et al. Putting the whole grain puzzle together: health benefits associated with whole grains--summary of American Society for Nutrition 2010 Satellite Symposium. J Nutr. 2011 May;141(5):1011S-22S.

23.     Qiu C, Coughlin KB, Frederick IO, Sorensen TK, Williams MA. Dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of subsequent preeclampsia. Am J Hypertens. 2008 Aug;21(8):903-9.

24.     Livesey G, Taylor R, Hulshof T, Howlett J. Glycemic response and health--a systematic review and meta-analysis: relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):258S-268S.

25.     Burani, J. Gushers and Tricklers: Practical Use of the Glycemic Index. Presentation at the American Diabetes Association Southern Regional Conference. Marco Island, Florida. May 2006.

26.     Moshfegh AJ, Friday AJ, Goldman JP, Chug Ahuja JK. Presence of Inulin and Oligofructose in the Diets of Americans. J. Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1407S-11S. [Cited 13-Aug-12]. Available from: jn.nutrition.org/content/129/7/1407S.full

27.     Sajilata MG, Rekha SS, Kulkarni PR. Resistant Starch—A Review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2006;(5)1:1-17. Available from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.tb00076.x/pdf

28.     Team Nord. Safety evaluation of fructans. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers. 2000.

29.     USDA. Sugar and sweeteners yearbook table. Table 51 and 52. Updated 5/24/11. [Cited 22-Jan-12]. Available from: www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Sugar/Data.htm

30.     Jackson BP, Taylor VF, Karagas MR, Punshon T, Cottingham KL 2012. Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 May;120(5):623-6. [Cited 23-Feb-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3346791/

31.     Johnson RK, Appel LJ, Brands M, Howard BV, Lefevre M, Lustig RH, Sacks F, Steffen LM, Wylie-Rosett J; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009 Sep 15;120(11):1011-20. [Cited 17-Nov-12]. Available from: circ.ahajournals.org/content/120/11/1011.long

32.     Koletzko B, Cetin I, Brenna JT; Perinatal Lipid Intake Working Group; Child Health Foundation; Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group; European Association of Perinatal Medicine; European Association of Perinatal Medicine; European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism; European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Committee on Nutrition; International Federation of Placenta Associations; International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids. Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br J Nutr. 2007 Nov;98(5):873-7.

33.     Micha R, Mozaffarian D. Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence. Lipids. 2010 Oct;45(10):893-905.

34.     Assunção ML, Ferreira HS, dos Santos AF, Cabral CR Jr, Florêncio TM. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids. 2009 Jul; 44(7):593-601.

35.     St-Onge MP, Bosarge A. Weight-loss diet that includes consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerol oil leads to a greater rate of weight and fat mass loss than does olive oil. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):621-6.

36.     American Heart Association. Know your fats. Updated 2-8-12. [Cited 28-Feb-12]. Available from: www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/PreventionTreatmentofHighCholesterol/Know-Your-Fats_UCM_305628_Article.jsp

37.     Javaid MK et al. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2006 Jan 7;367(9504):36-43.

38.     Vitamin D Council. Health ConditionsSeptember 2011. [Cited 1-Dec-12]. Available from: www.vitamindcouncil.org/health-conditions

39.     Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, Jarvelin M-R, Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birthcohort study. Lancet 2001;358:1500-3.

40.     Risks and Benefits of Sun Exposure Position Statement. Approved by The Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society, Osteoporosis Australia, Australaian College of Dermatologists and the Cancer Council Australia. May 2007. [Cited 1-Dec-12]Available from: www.cancer.org.au/cancer-control-policy/position-statements/sun-smart/#jump_3

41.     Holick MF. Vitamin D Deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;357: 266-81

42.     Holick MF. Vitamin D Deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;357: 266-81

43.     Haahtela T, Valovirta E, Kauppi P, Tommila E, Saarinen K, von Hertzen L,Mäkelä MJ. Th e Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018 - scientifi c rationale and practical implementation. Asia Pac Allergy. 2012 October; 2(4): 275–279

44.     Eur Respir J. 2010 Jun;35(6):1228-34. Kramer MS. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000; CD000133. Maternal antigen avoidance during pregnancy for preventing atopic disease in infants of women at high risk.

45.     Salvatore S, Keymolen K, Hauser B, Vandenplas Y. Intervention during pregnancy and allergic disease in the off spring. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2005; 16:558-66.

46.     Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Allergy and Immunology. Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):183-91. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3022.

47.     American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Prevention of Allergies and Asthma in Children: Tips to Remember. [Cited 27-Jan-13]. Available from: www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/at-a-glance/prevention-of-allergies-and-asthma-in-children.aspx

48.     Prescott SL,Tang M ASCIA Position Statement: Summary of Allergy Prevention in Children, as published in the Medical Journal of Australia 2005; 182 (9): 464-467. March 2010. [Cited 27-Jan-13] Available from: www.allergy.org.au/health-professionals/papers/allergy-prevention-in-children

49.     Høst A, Halken S, Muraro A, Dreborg S, Niggemann B, Aalberse R, Arshad SH, von Berg A, Carlsen KH, Duschén K, Eigenmann PA, Hill D, Jones C, Mellon M, Oldeus G, Oranje A, Pascual C, Prescott S, Sampson H, Svartengren M, Wahn U, Warner JA, Warner JO, Vandenplas Y, Wickman M, Zeiger RS. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2008 Feb;19(1):1-4.

50.     Maslova E, Granström C, Hansen S, Petersen SB, Strøm M, Willett WC, Olsen SF. Peanut and tree nut consumption during pregnancy and allergic disease in children-should mothers decrease their intake? Longitudinal evidence from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

51.     Willers SM, Wijga AH, Brunekreef B, Kerkhof M, Gerritsen J, Hoekstra MO, de Jongste JC, Smit HA. Eur Respir J. Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and the longitudinal development of childhood asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul 15;178(2):124-31.

52.     Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Oien T. Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: a randomized, double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Sep;163(3):616-23.

53.     Wickens K, Black PN, Stanley TV, Mitchell E, Fitzharris P, Tannock GW,Purdie G, Crane J; Probiotic Study Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. A diff erential effect of 2 probiotics in the prevention of eczema and atopy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. 2008 Oct;122(4):788-94.

54.     Torres-Borrego J, Moreno-Solís G, Molina-Terán AB. Diet for the prevention of asthma and allergies in early childhood: much ado about something? Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2012 Jul-Aug;40(4):244-52.

55.     Erkkola M, Nwaru BI, Kaila M, Kronberg-Kippilä C, Ilonen J, Simell O, Veijola R, Knip M, Virtanen SM. Risk of asthma and allergic outcomes in the off spring in relation to maternal food consumption during pregnancy: a Finnish birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012 Mar;23(2):186-94.

56.     Torres-Borrego J, Moreno-Solís G, Molina-Terán AB. Diet for the prevention of asthma and allergies in early childhood: much ado about something? Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2012 Jul-Aug;40(4):244-52.

57.     Lumia M, Luukkainen P, Tapanainen H, Kaila M, Erkkola M, Uusitalo L, Niinistö S, Kenward MG, Ilonen J, Simell O, Knip M, Veijola R, Virtanen SM. Dietary fatty acid composition during pregnancy and the risk of asthma in the off spring.Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011 Dec;22(8):827-35.

58.     Castro-Rodriguez JA, Garcia-Marcos L, Sanchez-Solis M, Pérez-Fernández V, Martinez-Torres A, Mallol J. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010 Apr;45(4):395-402. Olive oil during pregnancy is associated with reduced wheezing during the fi rst year of life of the off spring.

Chapter 4 – Eating Expectantly Diet

1.         Goy YI, Bollano E, Eiarson TR, Koren G. Prenatal multivitamin supplementation and rates of congenital anomalies: a meta analysis.. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada. 2006 Aug; 28(8):680-9.

2.         Shah PS, Ohlsson A. Effects of prenatal multimicronutrient supplementation on pregnancy outcomes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. Jun 9 2009; 180(12):E99-108.

3.         Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association, Becker DV, Braverman LE, Delange F, Dunn JT, Franklyn JA, Hollowell JG, Lamm SH, et al. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2006 Oct; 16(10):949-51.

4.         Teran E, Hernandez I, Nieto B, Tavara R, Ocampo JE, Calle A. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009 Apr; 105(1):43-5.

5.         Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Coenzyme Q-10. Updated 2-28-12. [Cited 29-Feb-12]. Available from: naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/nd/Search.aspx?pt=100&id=938&ds=&name=CoQ10+%28COENZYME+Q-10%29&searchid=33081344&cs=&s=ND

6.         Cavalli P, Tonni G, Grosso E, Poggiani C. Effects of inositol supplementation in a cohort of mothers at risk of producing an NTD pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011 Nov;91(11):962-5. doi: 10.1002/bdra.22853.

7.         Wilson MP, Hugge C, Bielinska M, Nicholas P, Majerus PW, Wilson DB. Neural tube defects in mice with reduced levels of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 16;106(24):9831-5.

8.         Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Inositol. Updated 2-28-12. [Cited 29-Feb-12]. Available from: naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/nd/Search.aspx?cs=&s=ND&pt=100&id=299&ds=&name=INOSITOL&searchid=33081344

9.         Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States. MMWR. April 3, 1998. 47(RR-3):1-36.

10.     Cockell KA, Miller DC, Lowell H. Application of the Dietary Reference Intakes in developing a recommendation for pregnancy iron supplements in Canada. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct; 90(4):1023-8.

11.     Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron. Reviewed 8-24-07. [Cited 28-Feb-12]. Available from: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/iron/#en36

12.     Ettinger AS, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. Dietary calcium supplementation to lower blood lead levels in pregnancy and lactation. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Mar; 18(3):172-8.

13.     Koletzko B, Cetin I, Brenna JT; Perinatal Lipid Intake Working Group; Child Health Foundation; Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group; European Association of Perinatal Medicine; European Association of Perinatal Medicine; European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism; European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Committee on Nutrition; International Federation of Placenta Associations; International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids. Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br J Nutr. 2007 Nov; 98(5):873-7.

14.     American Pregnancy Association. Omega 3 fish oil and pregnancy. Updated 12/2011 [Cited 29-Feb-12] Available from: www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/omega3fishoil.html

15.     Medicinenet.com Probiotics symptoms, causes, treatment. 8/1/2008.[Cited 29-Feb-12] Available from: www.medicinenet.com/probiotics/page5.htm

16.     Doege K, Grajecki D, Zyriax BC, Detinkina E, Zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ. Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood--a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2012 Jan; 107(1):1-6.

17.     Othman M, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z. Probiotics for preventing preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan; 24(1):CD005941.

18.     Brantsaeter AL, Myhre R, Haugen M, Myking S, Sengpiel V, Magnus P, et al. Intake of probiotic food and risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Oct 1; 174(7):807-15.

Chapter 5 – Weight Gain: What You Need to Know

1.         Stotland NE. Body mass index, provider advice and gestational target weight gain. 2005 Mar;105(3) 633-638.

2.         Crane JM, White J, Murphy P, Burrage L, Hutchens D. The effect of gestational weight gain by body mass index on maternal and neonatal outcomes. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009 Jan;31(1):28-35.

3.         Webb JB, Siega-Riz AM, Dole N. Psychosocial Determinants of Adequacy of Gestational Weight Gain. Behavior and Psychology Obesity. 2009:17(2) 300–309. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.490

4.         Hurley KM, Caulfield LE, Saco LA, Costigan KA, DiPietro JA. Psychosocial influences in dietary patterns during pregnancy. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:963–966.

Chapter 6 – Keeping Your Baby’s Environment Safe

1.         Tobacco Use and Pregnancy, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 3/23/12. [Cited 5-Jul-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/tobaccousepregnancy/

2.         Day, MD, Day NL. Developmental consequences of prenatal tobacco exposure. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009 April;22(2): 121–125.[Cited 5-Jul-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2745235/

3.         American Pregnancy Association. November 2006. [Cited 18-Aug-12]. Available from: www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancycomplications/placentalabruption.html

4.         Neuman A, Hohmann C, Orsini N, Pershagen G, Eller E, Fomsgaard Kjaer H, et al. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Asthma in Preschool Children: a Pooled Analysis of 8 Birth Cohorts. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Nov 15;186(10):1037-43

5.         Rückinger S, Rzehak P, Chen CM, Sausenthaler S, Koletzko S, Bauer CP, et al. GINI-plus Study Group. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco exposure and behavioral problems in 10-year-old children: results from the GINI-plus prospective birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jan;118(1):150-4.

6.         Ekblad M, Gissler M, Lehtonen L, Korkeila J. Prenatal smoking exposure and the risk of psychiatric morbidity into young adulthood. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Aug;67(8):841-9.

7.         Goldschmidt L, Cornelius MD, Day NL. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Jun;14(6):694-702.

8.         Key AP, Ferguson M, Molfese DL, Peach K, Lehman C, Molfese VJ. Smoking during pregnancy affects speech-processing ability in newborn infants. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Apr;115(4):623-9.

9.         Yilmaz G, Caylan ND, Karacan CD. Effects of Active and Passive Smoking on Ear Infections. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2012 Feb;14(2):166-174

10.     Mitchell EA, Beasley R, Keil U, Montefort S, Odhiambo J; and the ISAAC Phase Three Study Group. The association between tobacco and the risk of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children and adolescents: analyses from Phase Three of the ISAAC programme. Thorax 2012 Jun 12. [Cited 6-Jul-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22693180

11.     Cogswell ME, Weisberg P, Spong C. Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Use and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Implications for Micronutrient Supplementation. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 2):1722S-1731S. Review. [Cited 6-Jul-12]. Available from: jn.nutrition.org/content/133/5/1722S.full

12.     March of Dimes. Alcohol during pregnancy. March 2012. [Cited 6-Jul-12]. Available from: www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/alcohol_indepth.html

13.     Danish studies suggest low and moderate drinking in early pregnancy has no adverse effects on children aged five. BJOG. [Cited 20-Jun-12]. Available from: www.bjog.org/details/news/2085661/Danish_studies_suggest_low_and_moderate_drinking_in_early_pregnancy_has_no_adver.html

14.     Chen JH. Maternal Alcohol Use during Pregnancy, Birth Weight and Early Behavioral Outcomes. Alcohol Alcohol. 2012 Nov;47(6):649-56. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/ags089. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

15.     Carter RC, Jacobson JL, Molteno CD, Jiang H, Meintjes EM, Jaconson SW, et al. Effects of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Iron Deficiency Anemia on Child Growth and Body Composition through Age 9 Years. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Nov;36(11):1973-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01810.x

16.     Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol use in pregnancy. October 2010. [Cited 1-Dec-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/alcohol-use.html

17.     International Council on Alcohol Policies. International guidelines on drinking during pregnancy. December 2009. [Cited 1-Dec-12]. Available from: www.icap.org/Table/InternationalGuidelines

18.     CARE Study Group. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal growth restriction: a large prospective observational study. BMJ. 2008 Nov 3;337:a2332. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2332. Erratum in: BMJ. 2010;340. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c2331.

19.     CARE Study Group. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal growth restriction: a large prospective observational study. BMJ. 2008 Nov 3;337:a2332. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2332. Erratum in: BMJ. 2010;340. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c2331.

20.     Weng X, Odouli R, Li DK. Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Mar;198(3):279.e1-8.

21.     Robinson LE, Spafford C, Graham TE, Smith GN. Acute caffeine ingestion and glucose tolerance in women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009 Apr; 31(4):304-12. [Cited 7-Jul-12.] Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19497149

22.     Committee Opinion No. 462: Moderate Caffeine Consumption During Pregnancy Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2010 August;116(2, Part 1):467-468.

23.     The March of Dimes, Caffeine in pregnancy. [Cited 8-Jul-12]. Available from: www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/nutrition_caffeine.html

24.     Pregnancy and food safety. New South Wales Food Authority. March 2012. [Cited 1-Dec-12]. Available from: www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/consumers/life-events-and-food/pregnancy/

25.     National Health Service. Should I limit caffeine during pregnancy. July 2011. [Cited 7-Jul-12]. Available from: www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/limit-caffeine-duringpregnancy.aspx?categoryid=54&subcategoryid=130

26.     Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. [Cited 8-Jul-12]. Available from: www.naturaldatabase.com

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28.     United States Environmental Protection Agency. Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Global Issue, A Global Response. 12/09. [Cited 12-Jul-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/oia/toxics/pop.html

29.     United States Environmental Protection Agency. Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Global Issue, A Global Response. December 2009. [Cited 12-Jul-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/oia/toxics/pop.html

30.     Lee DH, Lee IK, Song K, Steffes M, Toscano W, Baker BA, et al. (2006). A strong dose-response relation between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes - Results from the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care. 29(7), 1638-1644. [Cited 30-Aug-12]. Available from: care.diabetesjournals.org/content/29/7/1638.long

31.     Environmental Protection Agency. Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Global Issue, A Global Response December 2009 [Cited 26-Aug-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/oia/toxics/pop.html

32.     Balabanič D, Rupnik M, Klemenčič AK. Negative impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds on human reproductive health. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2011;23(3):403-16.

33.     Giordano F, Abballe A, De Felip E, di Domenico A, Ferro F, Grammatico P, et al. Maternal exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals and hypospadias in offspring. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010 Apr;88(4):241-50.

34.     Dindyal S. The sperm count has been decreasing steadily for many years in Western industrialised countries: Is there an endocrine basis for this decrease?. The Internet Journal of Urology. 2004;2(1). [Cited 1-Dec-12]. Available from: www.ispub.com/journal/the-internet-journal-of-urology/volume-2-number-1/the-sperm-count-has-been-decreasing-steadily-for-many-years-in-western-industrialised-countries-is-there-an-endocrine-basis-for-this-decrease.html

35.     Bonacasa B, Siow RC, Mann GE. Impact of dietary soy isoflavones in pregnancy on fetal programming of endothelial function in offspring. Microcirculation. 2011 May; 18(4):270-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-8719.2011.00088.x. [Cited 2-Sep-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21418378

36.     United States Environmental Protection Agency. BPA alternatives in thermal paper partnership. 8/20/12. [Cited 31-Aug-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/projects/bpa/index.htm

37.     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Bisphenol A Action Plan; 29 March 2010 [Cited 18-Aug-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/actionplans/bpa_action_plan.pdf

38.     United States Food and Drug Administration. Bisphenol A (BPA): Use in Food Contact Application. March 2012. [Cited 18-Aug-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm064437.htm

39.     The Breast Cancer Fund. BPA in Thanksgiving Canned Food. November 2011. [Cited 31-Aug-12]. Available from: www.breastcancerfund.org/big-picture-solutions/make-our-products-safe/cans-not-cancer/bpa-thanksgiving-food.html

40.     World Health Organization. Dioxins and their effects on health. Fact sheet No 225. May 2010. [Cited 27-Aug-12]. Available from: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs225/en/

41.     Environmental Protection Agency. An inventory of sources and environmental releases of dioxin-like compounds in the United States for the years 1987, 1995, and 2000. 2006. [Cited 28-Aug-12]. Available from: cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=159286

42.     World Health Organization European Centre for Environment and Health. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Assessment of the health risk of dioxins: reevaluation of the Tolerable Daily Intake. May 1998. [Cited 2-Dec-12].Available from: www.who.int/ipcs/publications/en/exe-sum-final.pdf

43.     World Health Organization. Dioxins and their effects on health. Fact sheet no 225. May 2010. [Cited 27-Aug-12]. Available from: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs225/en/

44.     Agency for toxic substances and disease registry. (ATSDR) ToxFAQs™ for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Updated March 2011. [Cited 14-Jul-12]. Available from: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=140&tid=26#bookmark09

45.     United States Environmental Protection Agency. Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Global Issue, A Global Response. December 2009. [Cited 28-Aug-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/oia/toxics/pop.html

46.     UN Environmental Protection Agency. Health effects of PCBs. Updated 4-12. [Cited 14-Jul-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/tsd/pcbs/pubs/effects.htm

47.     McAuliffe ME, Williams PL, Korrick SA, Altshul LM, Perry MJ. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p’-DDE and sperm sex-chromosome disomy. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Apr; 120(4):535-40.

48.     Agency for toxic substances and disease registry. (ATSDR) Public health implications of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). August 2008. [Cited 28-Aug-12]. Available from: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/dt/pcb007.html

49.     Susan G Komen for the Cure. Breast Cancer Research Studies. Table 27: Blood organochlorine levels and breast cancer risk. August 2012. [Cited 31-Aug-12]. Available from: ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/Table27Bloodorganochlorinelevelsandbreastcancerrisk.html

50.     Mnif, W, Hassine AIH, Bouaziz A, Bartegi A, Thomas A, Roig B. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 June; 8(6): 2265–2303. [Cited 28-Aug-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138025/

51.     CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).. Third National Exposure Report. 2005 [Cited 19-Feb-08]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/report.htm

52.     Duty SM, Singh NP, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Brock JW, Ryan L, et al. The relationship between environmental exposures to phthalates and DNA damage in human sperm using the neutral comet assay. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003 Jul;111(9):1164-9.

53.     Duty SM, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Brock JW, Ryan L, Chen Z, et al. Phthalate Exposure and Human Semen Parameters. Epidemiology. 2003 May;14(3):269-77.

54.     Swan SH, Main KM, Liu F, Stewart SL, Kruse RL, Calafat AM, et al. Study for Future Families Research Team. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):1056-61.

55.     James-Todd T, Stahlhut R, Meeker JD, Powell S-G, Hauser R, Huang T, et al. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Diabetes among Women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 September;120(9): 1307–1313. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3440117/

56.     United States Environmental Protection Agency. Inorganic arsenic. TEACH chemical summary. August 2007. [Cited 14-Jul-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/teach/

57.     Arsenic in your juice: How much is too much? Consumer Reports Magazine. January 2012. [Cited 5-Jul-12]. Available from: www.consumerreports.org/cro/consumer-reports-magazine-january-2012/arsenic-in-your-juice/index.htm#groundwater

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59.     Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Arsenic. August 2012. [Cited 31-Aug-12]. Available from: www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/arsenic.cfm

60.     United States Environmental Protection Agency. Inorganic arsenic. TEACH chemical summary. Revised 8/07. [Cited 14-Jul-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/teach/

61.     Hamadani JD, Tofail F, Nermell B, Gardner R, Shiraji S, Bottai M, Arifeen SE, Huda SN, Vahter M. Critical windows of exposure for arsenic-associated impairment of cognitive function in pre-school girls and boys: a population-based cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Dec;40(6):1593-604.

62.     Gilbert-Diamond D, Cottingham KL, Gruber JF, Punshon T, Sayarath V, Gandolfi AJ, et al. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011 Dec 20; 108(51):20656-60.

63.     Jackson BP, Taylor VF, Karagas MR, Punshon T, Cottingham KL. Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 May;120(5):623-6.

64.     Meharg AA, Lombi E, Williams PN, Scheckel KG, Feldmann J, Raab A, et al. Speciation and localization of arsenic in white and brown rice grains. Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Feb 15;42(4):1051-7.

65.     Consumer Reports Magazine. Arsenic in your food. November 2012. [Cited 2-Dec-12]. Available from: www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine/2012/11/arsenic-in-your-food/index.htm

66.     Consumer Reports Magazine. Arsenic in your food. November 2012. [Cited 2-Dec-12]. Available from: www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine/2012/11/arsenic-in-your-food/index.htm

67.     US Environmental Protection Agency. Cadmium compounds. Updated July 2007 [Cited 14-Jul-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/cadmium.html

68.     US Environmental Protection Agency. Waste minimization: Cadmium. Updated April 2012.[Cited 14-Jul-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/wastes/hazard/wastemin/priority.htm

69.     Buck Louis GM, Sundaram R, Schisterman EF, Sweeney AM, Lynch CD, Gore-Langton RE, et al. Heavy metals and couple fecundity, the LIFE Study. Chemosphere. 2012 Jun;87(11):1201-7.

70.     Thompson J, Bannigan J Cadmium: toxic effects on the reproductive system and the embryo. Reprod Toxicol. 2008 Apr;25(3):304-15.

71.     Queiroz EK, Waissmann W. Occupational exposure and effects on the male reproductive system. Cad Saude Publica. 2006 Mar;22(3):485-93. Review.

72.     Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ToxFAQs for Cadmium. Updated March 2011. [Cited 15-Jul-12]. Available from: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=47&tid=15

73.     Bonithon-Kopp C, Huel G, Moreau T, Wendling R. Prenatal exposure to lead and cadmium and psychomotor development of the child at 6 years. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1986 May-Jun;8(3):307-10.

74.     Ciesielski T, Weuve J, Bellinger DC, Schwartz J, Lanphear B, Wright RO. Cadmium exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes in U.S. children. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 May;120(5):758-63. Available from: dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104152

75.     Dartmouth Toxic Metals. Superfund Research Program. November 2010. [Cited 31-Aug-12]. Available from www.dartmouth.edu/~toxmetal/toxic-metals/more-metals/cadmium-faq.html

76.     Bendell LL, Chan K, St. Clair T, Walling H. Proceedings of the workshop; Cadmium in Shellfish from the Pacific Northwest: Status and Health Concerns. Simon Fraser University. May 2010.

77.     FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs. ORA Laboratory Manual. Volume IV Orientation and Training. Section 6 Elemental Analysis. Revised January 2012. [Cited 31-Aug-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/downloads/ScienceResearch/UCM092243.pdf

78.     FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs. ORA Laboratory Manual. Volume IV Orientation and Training. Section 6 Elemental Analysis. Revised January 2012. [Cited 31-Aug-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/downloads/ScienceResearch/.../UCM092243.pdf

79.     Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ToxFAQs for Lead. Updated March 2011. [Cited 5-Jul-12]. Available from: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=93&tid=22

80.     Buck Louis GM, Sundaram R, Schisterman EF, Sweeney AM, Lynch CD, Gore-Langton RE, et al. Heavy metals and couple fecundity, the LIFE Study. Chemosphere. 2012 Jun;87(11):1201-7.

81.     Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Are You Pregnant? Prevent lead poisoning. Start now. Updated 11/29/10. [Cited 9-Jul-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips/pregnant.htm

82.     March of Dimes. Staying safe: mercury. August 2009. [Cited 12-Jul-12]. Available from: www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/stayingsafe_mercury.html

83.     Hujoel PP, Lydon-Rochelle M, Bollen AM, Woods JS, Geurtsen W, del Aguila MA. Mercury exposure from dental filling placement during pregnancy and low birth weight risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Apr 15; 161(8):734-40.

84.     Watson GE, Lynch M, Myers GJ, Shamlaye CF, Thurston SW, Zareba G, et al. Prenatal exposure to dental amalgam: evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Study main cohort. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011 Nov;142(11):1283-94.

85.     US Environmental Protection Agency. Mercury: Health Effects. February 2012. [Cited 31-Aug-12]. Available from: www.epa.gov/hg/effects.htm

86.     Deshayne B. Fell, Ann E. Sprague, Ning Liu, Abdool S. Yasseen, Shi-Wu Wen, et al. H1N1 Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy and Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes. Am J Public Health. 2012 Jun;102 (6): e33-40.

87.     Centers for disease control and prevention. Listeria prevention. [Cited 23-Jul-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/listeria/prevention.html

88.     Australia and New Zealand. Pregnancy and healthy eating. October 2011. [Cited 2-Sep-12]. Available from: www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/pregnancyandhealthyeating/

89.     National Health Service. Can I eat smoked fish and cold meats during pregnancy? April 2011. [Cited 2-Sep-12]. Available from: www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/eating-smoked-fish-and-cold-meats-during-pregnancy.aspx

90.     La Listeriose. Institut Pasteur. February 2009 [Cited 13-Dec-12]. Available from: www.pasteur.fr/ip/easysite/pasteur/fr/presse/fiches-sur-les-maladies-infectieuses/listeriose

91.     March of Dimes. Pregnancy Complications: Listeriosis. Februuary 2012. [Cited 3-Dec-12]. Available from: www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications_toxoplasmosis.html

92.     Lafferty K. Can the common brain parasite toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture? Proc Biol Sci. 2006 November 7;273(1602): 2749–2755. [Cited 24-Jul-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1635495/

93.     Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. US Food and Drug Administration. Bad Bug Book, 2nd ed. April 2012. [Cited 1-Sep-12]. www.fda.gov/food/foodsafety/foodborneillness/foodborneillnessfoodbornepathogensnaturaltoxins/badbugbook/default.htm

94.     Consumer Reports. Greener choices for a better planet. Water filters: green buying guide. February 2012. [Cited 10-Jul-12]. Available from www.greenerchoices.org/products.cfm?product=waterfilter

95.     Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. An ounce of prevention keeps the germs away: Seven steps to a safer healthier home. [Cited 29-Jul-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/ounceofprevention

96.     Kilonzo-Nthenge A, Chen FC, Godwin SL. Efficacy of home washing methods in controlling surface microbial contamination on fresh produce. J Food Prot. 2006 Feb;69(2):330-4.

97.     Lukasik J, Bradley ML, Scott TM, Dea M, Koo A, Hsu WY, et al. Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes. J Food Prot. 2003 Feb;66(2):188-93.

98.     Health Canada. Safe internal temperatures. August 2010. [Cited 28-Jul-12]. Available from: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/kitchen-cuisine/cook-temp-cuisson-eng.php

99.     Health Canada. It’s your health: The Safe Use of Cookware. 2006. [Cited 28-Jul-12]. Available from: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/prod/cook-cuisinier-eng.php

100. Consumer Union. Kitchen cookware buying guide. Updated July 2012. [Cited 29-Jul-12]. Available from: www.consumerreports.org/cro/kitchen-cookware.htm

101. Consumer Union. Kitchen cookware buying guide. Updated July 2012. Available from: www.consumerreports.org/cro/home-garden/kitchen/kitchen-cookware/kitchen-cookware-recommendations/cookware.htm

102. Hamilton J. Plastic’s new frontier: no scary chemicals. March 4, 2011. [Cited 1-Sep-12]. Available from: www.npr.org/2011/03/04/134240436/plastics-new-frontier-no-estrogenic-activity

103. United States Department of Agriculture. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Cooking safely in the microwave. May 2011. [Cited 1-Sep-12]. Available from: www.fsis.usda.gov/FACTSheets/Cooking_Safely_in_the_Microwave/index.asp#3

104. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Continues to study BPA. March 2012. [Cited 28-Jul-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm297954.htm

105. Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Garne E, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sørensen M. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies: a cohort study. Environ Health. 2012 Aug 14;11(1):54.

106. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Environmental Health. Ettinger AS, Wengrovitz AG, editors. Guidelines for the Identification and Management of Lead Exposure in Pregnant and Lactating Women. Nov 2010.

107. Anway MD, Leathers C, Skinner MK. Endocrine disruptor vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational adult-onset disease. Endocrinology. 2006 Dec;147(12):5515-23.

108. Rutala WA, Barbee SL, Aguiar NC, Sobsey MD, Weber DJ. Antimicrobial activity of home disinfectants and natural products against potential human pathogens. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000 Jan;21(1):33-8.

109. Center for disease control and prevention. Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities, 2008. Updated 2009. [Cited 5-Aug-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/hicpac/Disinfection_Sterilization/7_0formaldehyde.html

110. Fragrance. The campaign for safe cosmetics. 2011. [Cited 4-Aug-12]. Available from: safecosmetics.org/article.php?id=222

111. Director General for Health and Consumers. European Commission. SCCS Final opinion on fragrance allergens in cosmetic products now available. July 2012. [Cited 4-Aug-12]. Available from: ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/dyna/enews/enews.cfm?al_id=1283

112. DEHP information center. [Cited 4-Aug-12]. Available from: www.dehp-facts.com/restrictions

113. EWG (Environmental Working Group). Cosmetics with banned and unsafe ingredients. Table 1 – Banned in other countries. 2007. [Cited 5-Aug-12]. www.ewg.org/node/22624

114. Nanotechnology. The campaign for safe cosmetics. 2011. [Cited 4-Aug-12]. Available from: safecosmetics.org/article.php?id=222

115. California department of toxic substances control. Unsupportable claims in nail care products. April 2012. [Cited 4-Aug-12]. Available from: dtsc.ca.gov/PollutionPrevention/SaferNailProducts.cfm

116. Brazilian Blowout Material Data Safety Sheet: BB-001. Revised 2/1/12. [Cited 7-Jul-12]. Available from: www.brazilianblowout.com/_literature_72696/Material_Safety_Data_Sheet.pdf

Chapter 7 – First Trimester

1.         Mayo Clinic. Pregnancy Week by Week.Fetal Development: The First Trimester. July 23, 2011. [Cited 22-Jan-12]. Available from: www.mayoclinic.com/health/prenatal-care/PR00112

2.         Mayo Clinic. Pregnancy Week by Week.Fetal Development: The First Trimester. July 23, 2011. [Cited 22-Jan-12]. Available from: www.mayoclinic.com/health/prenatal-care/PR00112

3.         Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes. Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Macronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Protein and Amino Acids. p 653. Washington DC; National Academies Press: 2002. Available from: www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490&page=653

4.         Zhang C, Qiu C, Hu F, David RM, van Dam RM. Bralley A, Williams MA. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS One. 2008;3(11):e3753. [Cited 1-Feb-2012]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2582131/?tool=pubmed

5.         Zhang C, Williams MA, Sorensen TK, King IB, Kestin MM, Thompson ML, Leisenring WM, Dashow EE, Luthy DA. Maternal plasma ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Epidemiology. 2004 Sep;15(5):597-604.

6.         Zhang C, Williams MA, King IB, Dashow EE, Sorensen TK, Frederick IO, Thompson ML, Luthy DA. Vitamin C and the risk of preeclampsia--results from dietary questionnaire and plasma assay. Epidemiology. 2002 Jul;13(4):409-16.

7.         Barclay L, Nghiem HT. ACOG Guidelines for Treating Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnant Women Reviewed. Medscape Education Clinical Briefs. November 2010. [Cited 12-26-11]. Available from: www.medscape.org/viewarticle/730520

8.         Jueckstock JK, Kaestner R, Mylonas I. Managing hyperemesis gravidarum: a multimodal challenge. BMC Med. 2010 Jul 15;8:46. [Cited 26-Dec-11]. Available from: www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/8/46

9.         Pepper GV, Craig Roberts S. Rates of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and dietary characteristics across populations. Proc Biol Sci. 2006 Oct 22;273(1601):2675-9. [Cited 16-Dec-11]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1635459/?log$=activity

10.     The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 52. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:803-15. March 2004.

11.     The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 52. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:803-15. March 2004.

12.     Smith C, Crowther C, Beilby J. Pregnancy outcome following women’s participation in a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture to treat nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Complement Ther Med. 2002 Jun;10(2):78-83.

13.     Smith C, Crowther C, Willson K, Hotham N, McMillian V. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;103(4):639-45.

14.     Jednak MA, Shadigian EM, Kim MS, Woods ML, Hooper FG, Owyang C, Hasler WL. Protein meals reduce nausea and gastric slow wave dysrhythmic activity in first trimester pregnancy. Am J Physiol. 1999 Oct;277(4 Pt 1):G855-61.

15.     Food cravings and what they mean. [Cited 4-Feb-12]. Available from: www.babycenter.com/0_food-cravings-and-what-they-mean_1313971.bc

16.     Huck O, Tenenbaum H, Davideau JL. Relationship between Periodontal Diseases and Preterm Birth: Recent Epidemiological and Biological Data. J Pregnancy. 2011: 164654. Epub 2011 Oct 30. [Cited 27-Dec-11. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3205685/?tool=pubmed

17.     Dasanayake AP, Gennaro S, Hendricks-Muñoz KD, Chhun N. Maternal periodontal disease, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2008 Jan-Feb;33(1):45-9.

18.     Ruma M, Boggess K, Moss K, Jared H, Murtha A, Beck J, Offenbacher S. Maternal periodontal disease, systemic inflammation, and risk for preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Apr;198(4):389.e1-5. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

19.     Offenbacher S, Lin D, Strauss R, McKaig R, Irving J, Barros SP, Moss K, Barrow DA, Hefti A, Beck JD. Effects of periodontal therapy during pregnancy on periodontal status, biologic parameters, and pregnancy outcomes: a pilot study. J Periodontol. 2006 Dec;77(12):2011-24.

20.     Personal communication. Dr. Don Callan. 2-28-08

21.     Personal communication. Dr. Gary Bourgeois 2-28-08

22.     The American Academy of Periodontology. [Cited 8-Dec-12]. Available from: www.perio.org/consumer/risk-factors

23.     American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). Guideline on perinatal oral health care. Chicago (IL): 2011. [Cited 27-Dec-11]. Available from: www.aapd.org/media/policies.asp

24.     American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). Guideline on perinatal oral health care. Chicago (IL): 2011. [Cited 27-Dec-11]. Available from: www.aapd.org/media/policies.asp

25.     Al-Zahrani MS. Increased intake of dairy products is related to lower periodontitis prevalence. J Periodontol. 2006 Feb;77(2):289-94.

26.     Merchant AT. Pitiphat W, Franz M, Joshipura KJ. Whole grain and fiber intakes and periodontitis risk in men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006 Jun;83(6):1395-1400.

27.     Slawik S, Staufenbiel I, Schilke R, Nicksch S, Weinspach K, Stiesch M, Eberhard J. Probiotics affect the clinical inflammatory parameters of experimental gingivitis in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;65(7):857-63. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.45.

28.     Shimazaki Y, Shirota T, Uchida K, Yonemoto K, Kiyohara Y, Iida M, Saito T, Yamashita Y. Intake of dairy products and periodontal disease: the Hisayama Study. J Periodontol. 2008 Jan;79(1):131-7.

Chapter 8 – Second Trimester

1.         Mayo Clinic. Pregnancy Week by Week. Fetal Development: The First Trimester. July 2011. [Cited 9-Dec-12]. Available at www.mayoclinic.com/health/fetal-development/PR00113/NSECTIONGROUP=2

2.         What your baby looks like this week. www.babycenter.com. [Cited 9-Dec-12]. Available from: www.babycenter.com/fetal-development-week-by-week

3.         What your baby looks like this week. www.babycenter.com. [Cited 9-Dec-12]. Available from: www.babycenter.com/fetal-development-week-by-week

4.         Mayo Clinic. Pregnancy Week by Week. Fetal Development: The First Trimester. July 2011. [Cited 22-Jan-12]. Available from: www.mayoclinic.com/health/fetal-development/PR00113/NSECTIONGROUP=2

5.         Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. p 2. Washington, DC. The National Academies Press; 2009). [Cited 20-Jan-12]. Available from: www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12584&page=2

6.         Nicklas, T.A., Qu, H., Hughes, S.O., Wagner, S.E., Foushee, H.R., Shewchuk, R.M. 2009. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults. Nutrition Today. 44(5): 222-227.

7.         Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research. NIH Consensus Development Conference. Lactose Intolerance and Health. February 22-24, 2010. [Cited 9-Dec-12]. Available from: consensus.nih.gov/2010/lactosestatement.htm

8.         Dehkordi N, Rao DR, Warren AP, Chawan CB. Lactose malabsorption as influenced by chocolate milk, skim milk, sucrose, whole milk, and lactic cultures. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Apr;95(4):484-6.

9.         Lee CM, Hardy CM. Cocoa feeding and human lactose intolerance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 May;49(5):840-4.

10.     Recker RR, Bammi A, Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP. Calcium absorbability from milk products, an imitation milk, and calcium carbonate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988 Jan;47(1):93-5.

11.     Office of Dietary Supplements: National Institutes of Health. Dietary supplement fact sheet: Iron. August 2007. [Cited 3-Jan-12]. Available from: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/iron

12.     Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001.

13.     Kannan S. Factors in vegetarian diets influencing iron and zinc bioavailability. Vegetarian Nutrition: a dietetic practice group of the American Dietetic Association. 2012. [Cited 3-Jan-12]. Available from: vndpg.org/articles/Iron-and-Zinc-Bioavailability-in-Vegetarian-Nutrition.php

14.     Kobayashi M, Nagatani Y, Magishi N, Tokuriki N, Nakata Y, Tsukiyama R, Imai H, Suzuki M, Saito M, Tsuji K. Promotive effect of Shoyu polysaccharides from soy sauce on iron absorption in animals and humans. Int J Mol Med. 2006 Dec;18(6):1159-63.

15.     Mangels R. The Everything Vegan Pregnancy Book. P 43. Adams Media: Avon Massachusetts; 2011.

16.     Macfarlane BJ, van der Riet WB, Bothwell TH, Baynes RD, Siegenberg D, Schmidt U, Tal A, Taylor JR, Mayet F. Effect of traditional oriental soy products on iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 May;51(5):873-80.

17.     Bihl G. Iron deficiency and gastric bypass surgery. Medscape Today News. January 2003. [Cited 3-Jan-12] Available from: www.medscape.com/viewarticle/448249

18.     Meltz, Wendy. “Fantastic Fruit.” Nutrition Action Health Letter. May 1998.

19.     National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). A service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH) Constipation. July 2007. [Cited 5-Jan-12]. Available from: digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/constipation/index.aspx

20.     King S, Laplante DP. The effects of prenatal maternal stress on children's cognitive development: Project Ice Storm. Stress. 2005 Mar;8(1):35-45.

21.     Talge NM, Neal C, Glover V; Early Stress, Translational Research and Prevention Science Network: Fetal and Neonatal Experience on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Mar-Apr;48(3-4):245-61.

22.     Beijers R, Jansen J, Riksen-Walraven M, de Weerth C. Maternal prenatal anxiety and stress predict infant illnesses and health complaints. Pediatrics. 2010 Aug;126(2):e401-9.

23.     Davis EP, Sandman CA. The timing of prenatal exposure to maternal cortisol and psychosocial stress is associated with human infant cognitive development. Child Dev. 2010 Jan-Feb;81(1):131-48.

24.     Van den Bergh BR, Marcoen A. High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and anxiety in 8- and 9-year-olds. Child Dev. 2004 Jul-Aug;75(4):1085-97.

25.     Ghosh JK, Wilhelm MH, Dunkel-Schetter C, Lombardi CA, Ritz BR. Paternal support and preterm birth, and the moderation of effects of chronic stress: a study in Los Angeles county mothers. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010 Aug;13(4):327-38.

Chapter 9 – Third Trimester

1.         Mayo Clinic. Pregnancy Week by Week. Fetal Development: The Third Trimester. July 23, 2011. [Cited 27-Jan-12]. Available from: www.mayoclinic.com/health/fetal-development/PR00114

2.         WebMD. Your Pregnancy Week by Week. Week 26-30. [Cited 27-Jan-12]. Available from: www.webmd.com/baby/guide/your-pregnancy-week-by-week-weeks-26-30

3.         WebMD. Your Pregnancy Week by Week. Week 31-34. [Cited 27-Jan-12]. Available from: www.webmd.com/baby/guide/your-pregnancy-week-by-week-weeks-31-34

4.         WebMD. Your Pregnancy Week by Week. Week 31-34. [Cited 27-Jan-12]. Available from: www.webmd.com/baby/guide/your-pregnancy-week-by-week-weeks-35-40

5.         National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. What is the DASH eating plan? November 11, 2010. [Cited 14-Jan-12]. Available from: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/dash/

6.         Saftlas AF, Triche EW, Beydoun H, Bracken MB. Does chocolate intake during pregnancy reduce the risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension? Ann Epidemiol. 2010 Aug;20(8):584-91.

7.         Triche EW, Grosso LM, Belanger K, Darefsky AS, Benowitz NL, Bracken MB. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia. Epidemiology. 2008 May;19(3):459-64.

8.         Kim H, Hwang JY, Ha EH, Park H, Ha M, Lee SJ, Hong YC, Chang N. Association of maternal folate nutrition and serum C-reactive protein concentrations with gestational age at delivery. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar;65(3):350-6. Epub 2010 Dec 22. Erratum in: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;65(7):878.

9.         Shiraishi M, Haruna M, Matsuzaki M, Ota E, Murayama R, Watanabe E, Sasaki S, Yeo S, Murashima S. Association Between Oxidized LDL and Folate During Pregnancy. Biol Res Nurs. 2011 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]

10.     Jain S, Sharma P, Kulshreshtha S, Mohan G, Singh S. The role of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in pre-eclampsia. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Feb;133(2):162-70.

11.     Shin JS, Choi MY, Longtine MS, Nelson DM. Vitamin D effects on pregnancy and the placenta. Placenta. 2010 Dec;31(12):1027-34.

12.     Brantsaeter AL, Myhre R, Haugen M, Myking S, Sengpiel V, Magnus P, Jacobsson B, Meltzer HM. Intake of probiotic food and risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Oct 1;174(7):807-15.

13.     Hofmeyr GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah AN, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Aug 4;(8):CD001059.

14.     Miller, G.D., J.K. Jarvis, and L.D. McBean. Handbook of Dairy Foods and Nutrition. 3rd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2007. p. 99-139.

15.     Zhang C, Liu S, Solomon CG, Hu FB. Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2006 Oct;29(10):2223-30.

16.     Wang Y, Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Tapsell LC, Jin Y, Pan JF, Shao YF, Calvert GD, Moses RG, Shi HL, Zhu XX. Dietary variables and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2000 Apr;23(4):460-4.

17.     Ley SH, Hanley AJ, Retnakaran R, Sermer M, Zinman B, O’Connor DL. Effect of macronutrient intake during the second trimester on glucose metabolism later in pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov;94(5):1232-40.

18.     Zhang C, Qiu C, Hu FB, David RM, van Dam RM, Bralley A, Williams MA. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS One. 2008;3(11):e3753.

19.     Zhang C, Williams MA, Sorensen TK, King IB, Kestin MM, Thompson ML, Leisenring WM, Dashow EE, Luthy DA. Maternal plasma ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Epidemiology. 2004 Sep;15(5):597-604.

20.     Medline Plus. Preeclampsia. September 12, 2011. [Cited 14-Jan-12]. Available from: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000898.htm

21.     Thompson KT and Logomarsino J. The effects of calcium and magnesium supplementation in preeclamptic women: is there a relationship between preeclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy? Women’s Health Report. A quarterly publication of Women’s Health Dietetic Practice Group. Spring 2010.

22.     Magnesium. Linus Pauling Institute. Oregon State University. August 2008. [Cited 28-Jan-12]. Available from: lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/magnesium/

23.     Hajjar IM, Grim CE, George V, Kotchen TA. Impact of diet on blood pressure and age-related changes in blood pressure in the US population: analysis of NHANES III. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Feb 26;161(4):589-93.

24.     New SA, Robins SP, Campbell MK, Martin JC, Garton MJ, Bolton-Smith C, Grubb DA, Lee SJ, Reid DM. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1):142-51.

25.     Pubmed Health. Muscle Cramps. July 23, 2010. [Cited 2-Mar-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0003677/

26.     World Health Organization. United Nations Children’s Fund & International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2007.

27.     Jiang X, Yan J, West AA, Perry CA, Malysheva OV, Devapatla S, Pressman E, Vermeylen F, Caudill MA. Maternal choline intake alters the epigenetic state of fetal cortisol-regulating genes in humans. FASEB J. 2012 Aug;26(8):3563-74. doi:10.1096/fj.12-207894.

28.     Lien EL, Hammond BR. Nutritional influences on visual development and function. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011 May;30(3):188-203. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2011.01.001.

29.     Mangels, AR, Holden, JM, Beecher, GR, Forman, MR, Lanza, E. Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: an evaluation of analytic data. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993. 93:284-296.

30.     Handelman, G. J., Nightingale, Z. D., Lichtenstein, A. H., Schaefer, E. J. & Blumberg, J. B. (1999) Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in plasma after dietary supplementation with egg yolk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70:247-251.

31.     Craig WJ, Mangels AR; American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jul;109(7):1266-82.

32.     Bonzini M, Coggon D, Palmer KT. Risk of prematurity, low birthweight and pre-eclampsia in relation to working hours and physical activities: a systematic review. Occup Environ Med. 2007 Apr;64(4):228-43.

33.     Moazzez R, Bartlett D, Anggiansah A. The effect of chewing sugar-free gum on gastro-esophageal reflux. J Dent Res. 2005 Nov;84(11):1062-5.

34.     Medline Plus. Aloe. 4/7/2011 [Cited 28-Jan-12]. Available from: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/607.html

35.     Medline Plus. Aloe. 4/7/2011 [Cited 28-Jan-12]. Available from: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/881.html

36.     Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Papaya. [Cited 28-Jan-12]. Available from: naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/nd/Search.aspx?cs=&s=ND&pt=100&id=488&ds=safety

Chapter 10 – Vegetarian Eating

1.         American Dietetic Association. Position Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009. (109):1266-1282. [Cited 18-Aug-12]. Available from: www.eatright.org/about/content.aspx?id=8357

2.         American Dietetic Association. Position Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009. (109): 1266-1282. [Cited 18-Aug-12]. Available from: www.eatright.org/about/content.aspx?id=8357

3.         Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):271-5

4.         Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Brown SE, Gould KL, Merritt TA, Sparler S, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, Kirkeeide RL, Hogeboom C, Brand RJ. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1998 Dec 16;280(23):2001-7.

5.         Lindbloom EJ. Long-term benefits of a vegetarian diet. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Apr 1;79(7):541-2.

6.         American Dietetic Association. Position Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009. (109): 1266-1282. [Cited 18-Aug-12]. Available from: www.eatright.org/about/content.aspx?id=8357

7.         Farmer B, Larson BT, Fulgoni VL 3rd, Rainville AJ, Liepa GU. A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Jun;111(6):819-27.

8.         Messina V, Melina V, Mangels AR. A new food guide for North American vegetarians. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2003 Summer;64(2):82-6.

9.         Food and Nutrition Board , Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2001.

10.     Pramyothin P, Holick MF. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2012 Mar;28(2):139-50. Vitamin D supplementation: guidelines and evidence for subclinical deficiency.

11.     Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, Hass E, Overbeck S, Thomsen J, Charles P, Eriksen EF. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med. 2000 Feb;247(2):260-8.

12.     Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5387-91.

13.     Higdon J, Drake VD. Iodine. Linus Pauling Institute. March 2010. [Cited 22-Dec-12]. Available from: lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/iodine/

14.     American Dietetic Association. Position Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009. (109):1266-1282. [Cited 18-Aug-12]. Available from: www.eatright.org/about/content.aspx?id=8357

15.     Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83.

Chapter 11 – High Risk Pregnancy

1.         American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Basics. January 2011. [Cited 13-Aug-12]. Available from: www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/

2.         DeSisto CL, Yim SY, and Sharma AJ. Prevalence Estimates of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2007–2010 Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130415. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd11.130415

3.         American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2016. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jan;39, Suppl:1 [Cited 9-Mar-16]. Available from: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/suppl/2015/12/21/39.Supplement_1.DC2/2016-Standards-of-Care.pdf

4.         American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2016. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jan;39, Suppl:1 [Cited 9-Mar-16]. Available from: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/suppl/2015/12/21/39.Supplement_1.DC2/2016-Standards-of-Care.pdf

5.         Kim SY, England JL, Sharma JA, Njoroge T. Gestational diabetes mellitus and risk of childhood overweight and obesity in offspring: a systematic review. Exp Diabetes Res. 2011;2011:541308.

6.         US Department of Health and Human Services. National Diabetes Information Clearing House. What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes. December 2011. [Cited 8-13-12]. Available from: diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/gestational/#6

7.         Ferrara A. Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a public health perspective. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jul;30 Suppl 2:S141-6.

8.         Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Evidence Analysis Library. Gestational Diabetes. 2008. [Cited 24-Sep-12]. Available from: www.adaevidencelibrary.com

9.         Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Evidence Analysis Library. Gestational Diabetes. 2008. [Cited 24-Sep-12]. Available from: www.adaevidencelibrary.com

10.     Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP. Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):936-42.

11.     Gutiérrez OM, Wolf M, Taylor EN. Fibroblast growth factor 23, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and phosphorus intake in the health professionals follow-up study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Dec;6(12):2871-8. [Cited 22-Dec-2012]. Available from: cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/6/12/2871.short

12.     Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP. Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):936-42.

13.     American Diabetes Association. Prenatal Care. [Cited 14-Sep-12]. Available from: www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/pregnant-women/prenatal-care.html

14.     Cranmer H. Neonatal hypoglycemia. Medscape Reference. Updated September 2011. [Cited 14-Sep-12] Available from: emedicine.medscape.com/article/802334-overview

15.     American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2012. Diabetes Care. 2012 Jan;35 Suppl 1:S11-63. [Cited 14-Sep-12]. Available from: care.diabetesjournals.org/content/35/Supplement_1/S11.full#sec-11

16.     American Diabetes Association. How to treat gestational diabetes. [Cited 14-Sep-12]. Available from: www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/how-to-treat-gestational.html

17.     March of Dimes. Pregnancy Complications: High blood pressure during pregnancy. March 2012. [Cited 15-Aug-12]. Available from: www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications_highbloodpressure.html

18.     Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jul;183(1):S1-S22.

19.     WebMD. Preeclampsia and eclampsia. August 2012. [Cited 15-Aug-12]. Available from: www.webmd.com/baby/guide/preeclampsia-eclampsia

20.     Dennedy MC, Avalos G, O’Reilly MW, O’Sullivan EP, Gaffney G, Dunne F. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and fetal outcomes in glucose-tolerant women according to International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Apr;97(4):E608-12.

21.     Hypertension in pregnancy. The management of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. London (UK): National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE); 2010 Aug. 46 p. (Clinical guideline; no. 107). [Cited 14-Sep-12]. Available from: www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=24122

22.     March of Dimes. Pregnancy Complications: High blood pressure during pregnancy. March 2012. [Cited 15-Aug-12]. Available from: www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications_highbloodpressure.html

23.     Carson MP. Hypertension and pregnancy. Medscape Reference. February 2012. [Cited 15-Aug-12]. Available from: emedicine.medscape.com/article/261435-overview#aw2aab6b7

24.     National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. US Department of Health and Human Services. Your guide to lowering your blood pressure with DASH. NIH Publication No. 06-4082. Revised April 2006. [Cited 22-Dec-12]. Available from www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/hbp/dash/new_dash.pdf

25.     Roussell MA, Hill AM, Gaugler TL, West SG, Heuvel JP, Alaupovic P, Gillies PJ,Kris-Etherton PM. Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet study: effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan;95(1):9-16.

26.     Torres SJ, Nowson CA. A moderate-sodium DASH-type diet improves mood in postmenopausal women. Nutrition. 2012 Sep;28(9):896-900.

27.     Health Canada. Sodium and Nutrition. June 2012. [Cited 14-Sep-12]. Available from: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/sodium/index-eng.php

28.     Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2005.

29.     Australian government: National Health and Medical Research Council. Nutrient Reference Values. Sodium. [Cited 14-Sep-12]. Available from: www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/sodium.htm

30.     Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Americans consume too much sodium. February 2011. [Cited 17-Aug-12]. Available from: www.cdc.gov/features/dssodium/

31.     Hofmeyr GJ, Atallah AN, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;(3):CD001059.

32.     Conde-Agudelo A, Romero R, Kusanovic JP, Hassan SS. Supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy for the prevention of preeclampsia and other adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jun;204(6):503.e1-12.

33.     Scholl TO, Chen X, Goldberg GS, Khusial PR, Stein TP. Maternal diet, C-reactive protein, and the outcome of pregnancy. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Aug;30(4):233-40.

34.     Furness DL, Dekker GA, Roberts CT. DNA damage and health in pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol. 2011 May;89(2):153-62.

35.     Bodnar LM, Catov JM, Klebanoff MA, Ness RB, Roberts JM. Prepregnancy body mass index and the occurrence of severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Epidemiology. 2007 Mar;18(2):234-9.

36.     Kennedy DA, Woodland C, Koren G. Lead exposure, gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review of cause and effect. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012 Aug;32(6):512-7.

37.     Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Kirmeyer S, Munson ML; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics National Vital Statistics System. Births: final data for 2005. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2007 Dec 5;56(6):1-103.

38.     Luke B, Eberlein T. When you’re expecting twins, triples or quads: proven guidelines for a healthy multiple pregnancy. Harper Collins: New York; 2011.

39.     Food and Nutrition Board, National Library of Medicine. Kathleen M. Rasmussen and Ann L. Yaktine, Editors; Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2009.

40.     Flidel-Rimon O, Rhea DJ, Keith LG, Shinwell ES, Blickstein I. Early adequate maternal weight gain is associated with fewer small for gestational age triplets. J Perinat Med. 2005;33(5):379-82.

41.     Luke B, Eberlein T. When you’re expecting twins, triples or quads: proven guidelines for a healthy multiple pregnancy. Harper Collins: New York; 2011.

42.     Lantz ME, Chez RA, Rodriguez A, Porter KB. Maternal weight gain patterns and birth weight outcome in twin gestation. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Apr;87(4):551-6.

43.     Vitamin and Mineral Supplements: Your Nutrition Insurance Policy. [Cited 14-Sep-12]. Available from: www.drbarbaraluke.com/vitamin.aspx

44.     Livingston G and Cohn D. The New Demography of American Motherhood. Pew Research Center August 19, 2010. [Cited 16-Aug-12]. Available from: pewresearch.org/pubs/1586/changing-demographic-characteristics-american-mothers

45.     Lisonkova S, Janssen PA, Sheps SB, Lee SK, Dahlgren L. The effect of maternal age on adverse birth outcomes: does parity matter? J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010 Jun;32(6):541-8.

46.     Wang Y, Tanbo T, Abyholm T, Henriksen T. The impact of advanced maternal age and parity on obstetric and perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011 Jul;284(1):31-7.

47.     Lao TT, Ho LF, Chan BC, Leung WC. Maternal age and prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2006 Apr;29(4):948-9

48.     Blankenship J. Pregnancy after surgical weight loss: nutrition care and recommendations. Weight Management Matters. 2005; 3(1)6-8.

49.     Allied Health Sciences Section Ad Hoc Nutrition Committee, Aills L, Blankenship J, Buffington C, Furtado M, Parrott J. ASMBS Allied Health Nutritional Guidelines for the Surgical Weight Loss Patient. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008 Sep-Oct;4(5 Suppl):S73-108. [Cited 22-Dec-12]. Available from: asmbs.org/2012/06/asmbs-integrated-health-nutritional-guidelines-for-the-surgical-weight-loss-patient/

50.     Allied Health Sciences Section Ad Hoc Nutrition Committee, Aills L, Blankenship J, Buffington C, Furtado M, Parrott J. ASMBS Allied Health Nutritional Guidelines for the Surgical Weight Loss Patient. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008 Sep-Oct;4(5 Suppl):S73-108. [Cited 22-Dec-12]. Available from: asmbs.org/2012/06/asmbs-integrated-health-nutritional-guidelines-for-the-surgical-weight-loss-patient/

51.     Xanthakos SA. Nutritional deficiencies in obesity and after bariatric surgery. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;56(5):1105-21.

52.     Xanthakos SA. Nutritional deficiencies in obesity and after bariatric surgery. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Oct;56(5):1105-21.

Chapter 12 – Considering Breastfeeding

1.         American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Breastfeeding. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129 (3):e827–e841.

2.         World Health Organization. Health Topics: Breastfeeding. [Cited 16-Sep-12) Available from: www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/

3.         Chirico G, Marzollo R, Cortinovis S, Fonte C, Gasparoni A. Antiinfective properties of human milk. J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1801S-1806S. [Cited 30-Dec-12]. Available from: jn.nutrition.org/content/138/9/1801S.long

4.         Schweigert FJ, Bathe K, Chen F, Büscher U, Dudenhausen JW. Effect of the stage of lactation in humans on carotenoid levels in milk, blood plasma and plasma lipoprotein fractions. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Feb;43(1):39-44. Epub 2004 Jan 6.

5.         American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Breastfeeding. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129 (3):e827–e84.1.

6.         American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Breastfeeding. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129 (3):e827–e84.1.

7.         Dennis CL, McQueen K. The relationship between infant-feeding outcomes and postpartum depression: a qualitative systematic review. Pediatrics. 2009 Apr;123(4):e736-51.

8.         James DC, Lessen R; American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: promoting and supporting breastfeeding. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Nov;109(11):1926-42.

9.         Amorim AR, Linne YM, Lourenco PM. Diet or exercise, or both, for weight reduction in women after childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD005627.

10.     Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate The National Academies Press. Washington DC; 2005.

11.     Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Lactation. The National Academies Press. Washington DC. 1991. [Cited 16-Sep-12]. Available from: www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1577&page=101

12.     American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;122 (5):1142-1152.

13.     Wagner CL, Greer FR and the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding and Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of Rickets and Vitamin D Deficiency in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008 Nov;129 (3):e827–e841.

14.     Bjørnerem A, Ahmed LA, Jørgensen L, Størmer J, Joakimsen RM. Breastfeeding protects against hip fracture in postmenopausal women: the Tromsø study. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Dec;26(12):2843-50. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.496.

15.     Caudill MA. Pre- and postnatal health: evidence of increased choline needs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Aug;110(8):1198-206.

16.     Eichenfield LF, Hanifin JM, Beck LA, Lemanske RF Jr, Sampson HA, Weiss ST, Leung DY. Atopic dermatitis and asthma: parallels in the evolution of treatment. Pediatrics. 2003 Mar;111(3):608-16.

17.     Sicherer SH, Munoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the United States determined by means of a random digit dial telephone survey: a 5-year follow-up study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Dec;112(6):1203-7.

18.     Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Allergy and Immunology. Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):183-91.

19.     Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee onNutrition; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Allergy and Immunology. Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):183-91.

20.     Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy. Allergy Prevention in Children. January 2010. [Cited 16-Sep-12]. Available from: www.allergy.org.au/patients/allergy-prevention/allergy-prevention-in-children

21.     Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy. Allergy Prevention in Children. January 2010. [Cited 16-Sep-12]. Available from: www.allergy.org.au/patients/allergy-prevention/allergy-prevention-in-children

22.     National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12. June 24, 2011. [Cited 6-Aug-12]. Available from: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/

23.     American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Breastfeeding. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129 (3):e827–e841.

24.     Rubin LP, Chan GM, Barrett-Reis BM, Fulton AB, Hansen RM, Ashmeade TL, Oliver JS, Mackey AD, Dimmit RA, Hartmann EE, Adamkin DH. Effect of carotenoids supplementation on plasma carotenoids, inflammation and visual development in preterm infants. J Perinatol. 2012 Jun;32(6):418-24. doi: 10.1038/jp.2011.87.

25.     American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Breastfeeding. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129 (3):e827–e841.

26.     American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep;108(3):776-89.

27.     Oddy WH. Infant feeding and obesity risk in the child. Breastfeed Rev. 2012 Jul;20(2):7-12.

28.     Horta BL, Bahl R, Martines JC, Victora CG. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding.

29.     Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. Harder T, Bergmann R, Kallischnigg G, Plagemann A Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Sep 1; 162(5):397-403.

Chapter 13 – First Week With Baby

1.         US National Library of Medicine. Postpartum depression. A.D.A.M. Medical encyclopedia. September 2010. [Cited 10-Aug-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004481/

2.         US National Library of Medicine. Fact Sheet: depression after childbirth—what can help. February 2010. [Cited 10-Aug-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0005000/

3.         Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Peters RM, Johnson DA, Li J, Rao DS. Vitamin D Nutritional Status and Antenatal Depressive Symptoms in African American Women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012 Nov;21(11):1189-95.

4.         Mokhber N, Namjoo M, Tara F, Boskabadi H, Rayman MP, Ghayour-Mobarhan M,Sahebkar A, Majdi MR, Tavallaie S, Azimi-Nezhad M, Shakeri MT, Nematy M, Oladi M,Mohammadi M, Ferns G. Effect of supplementation with selenium on postpartum depression: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011 Jan;24(1):104-8.

5.         Etebary S, Nikseresht S, Sadeghipour HR, Zarrindast MR. Postpartum depression and role of serum trace elements. Iran J Psychiatry. 2010 Spring;5(2):40-6.

6.         Gunderson EP, Abrams B. Epidemiology of gestational weight gain and body weight changes after pregnancy. Epidemiol Rev. 1999;21(2):261-75.

7.         Østbye T, Krause KM, Lovelady CA, Morey MC, Bastian LA, Peterson BL, Swamy GK,Brouwer RJ, McBride CM. Active Mothers Postpartum: a randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Sep;37(3):173-80 [Cited 11-Aug-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2774935/?tool=pubmed

8.         Hetherington MM, Boyland E. Short-term effects of chewing gum on snack intake and appetite. Appetite. 2007 May;48(3):397-401.

9.         Paula J. Geiselman, Corby Martin, Sandra Coulon, Donna Ryan, and Megan Apperson. Effects of chewing gum on specific macronutrient and total caloric intake in an afternoon snack. FASEB J. 2009 23:101.3.

10.     FRC Research corporation. The impact of chewing gum on consumer stress levels. June 2006.

11.     NWCR Facts. The National Weight Control Registry. [Cited 31-Dec-12]. Available from: www.nwcr.ws/Research/default.htm

12.     NWCR Facts. The National Weight Control Registry. [Cited 31-Dec-12]. Available from: www.nwcr.ws/Research/default.htm

13.     NWCR Facts. The National Weight Control Registry. [Cited 31-Dec-12]. Available from: www.nwcr.ws/Research/default.htm

14.     Kiernan M, Moore SD, Schoffman DE, Lee K, King AC, Taylor CB, Kiernan NE, Perri MG. Social support for healthy behaviors: scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Apr;20(4):756-64. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.293.

15.     Vander Wal JS, Marth JM, Khosla P, Jen KL, Dhurandhar NV. Short-term effect of eggs on satiety in overweight and obese subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Dec;24(6):510-5.

16.     National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, North American Association for the Study of Obesity. The Practical Guide; Identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. 2000.

17.     Gunderson EP, Rifas-Shiman SL, Oken E, Rich-Edwards JW, Kleinman KP, Taveras EM, Gillman MW. Association of fewer hours of sleep at 6 months postpartum with substantial weight retention at 1 year postpartum. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Jan 15;167(2):178-87.

18.     Maturi MS, Afshary P, Abedi P. Effect of physical activity intervention based on a pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011; 11: 103. [Cited 11-Aug-12]. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292461/?tool=pubmed

19.     Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Scialli AR. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet. Obesity. (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep;15(9):2276-81.

20.     Berkow SE, Barnard N. Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutr Rev. 2006 Apr;64(4):175-88.

21.     Conde-Agudelo A, Rosas-Bermúdez A, Kafury-Goeta AC. Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2006 Apr 19;295(15):1809-23.

22.     Linné Y, Dye L, Barkeling B, Rössner S. Weight development over time in parous women--the SPAWN study--15 years follow-up. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Dec;27(12):1516-22.

Chapter 14 – Fitting Fitness In

1.         American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2002, reaffirmed 2007). Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 267. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 99(1): 171–173.

2.         Sports Medicine Australia. Exercise in pregnancy fact sheet. [Cited 24-Feb-12]. Available from: sma.org.au/resources/policies/active-women/

3.         Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Statement No. 4. Exercise in pregnancy. January 2006.

4.         Mottola M. Exercise and pregnancy: Canadian guidelines for health care professionals. Government of Alberta. 2011 June. [Cited 1-Jan-13] Available from: www.centre4activeliving.ca/publications/wellspring/2011/aug-pregnancy.html

5.         Canadian society for exercise physiology. Physical activity readiness medical examination for pregnancy (PARmed-X for pregnancy). 2002. [Cited 1-Jan-13]. Available from: www.csep.ca/cmfiles/publications/parq/parmed-xpreg.pdf

6.         Owe KM, Nystad W, Bø K. Correlates of regular exercise during pregnancy: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009 Oct;19(5):637-45.

7.         Ruchat SM, Davenport MH, Giroux I, Hillier M, Batada A, Sopper MM, Hammond JM, Mottola MF. Nutrition and exercise reduce excessive weight gain in normal-weight pregnant women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Aug;44(8):1419-26.

8.         Teychenne M, Ball K, Salmon J. Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: a review. Prev Med. 2008 May;46(5):397-411. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.01.009.

9.         Carek PJ, Laibstain SE, Carek SM. Exercise for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2011;41(1):15-28.

10.     Gjestland K, Bø K, Owe KM, Eberhard-Gran M. Do pregnant women follow exercise guidelines? Prevalence data among 3482 women, and prediction of low-back pain, pelvic girdle pain and depression. Br J Sports Med. 2012 Aug.

11.     Gjestland K, Bø K, Owe KM, Eberhard-Gran M. Do pregnant women follow exercise guidelines? Prevalence data among 3482 women, and prediction of low-back pain, pelvic girdle pain and depression. Br J Sports Med. 2012 Aug.

12.     Curtis K, Weinrib A Katz J. Systematic review of yoga for pregnant women: current status and future directions. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012 Aug; 2012: 715942. doi: 10.1155/2012/715942

13.     Babbar S, Parks-Savage AC, Chauhan SP. Yoga during pregnancy: a review. Am J Perinatol. 2012 Jun;29(6):459-64.

14.     Price BB, Amini SB, Kappeler K. Exercise in pregnancy: effect on fitness and obstetric outcomes-a randomized trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Dec;44(12):2263-9. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318267ad67.

15.     The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Exercise during pregnancy. Frequently asked questions. FAQ 0119. August 2011. [Cited 1-Jan-13]. Available from: www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq119.ashx

16.     Nieman DC, Henson DA, Austin MD, Brown VA. Immune response to a 30-minute walk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Jan;37(1):57-62.

17.     Palomba S. et al. Structured exercise training programme versus hypocaloric hyperproteic diet in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients with anovulaotry infertility; a 24 week pilot study. Hum Reprod. 2008 Mar;23(3):642-50

18.     Jackson G. The importance of risk factor reduction in erectile dysfunction. Current Urology Reoirt 2007; 8(6):463-6.

19.     Melzer K, Schutz Y, Boulvain M, Kayser B. Physical activity and pregnancy: cardiovascular adaptations, recommendations and pregnancy outcomes. Sports Med. 2010 Jun 1;40(6):493-507. doi: 10.2165/11532290-000000000-00000.

20.     National Health Service (UK). Exercise in pregnancy. [Cited 1-Jan-13]. Available from: www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/pregnancy-exercise.aspx#close

21.     American pregnancy association. Kegels. [Cited 1-Jan-13]. Available from: www.americanpregnancy.org/labornbirth/kegelexercises.htm

22.     Davies GA, Wolfe LA, Mottola MF, MacKinnon C, Arsenault MY, Bartellas E, Cargill Y, Gleason T, Iglesias S, Klein M, Martel MJ, Roggensack A, Wilson K, Gardiner P, Graham T, Haennel R, Hughson R, MacDougall D, McDermott J, Ross R,Tiidus P, Trudeau F; SOGC Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee, Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Board of Directors. Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Jun;25(6):516-29. [Cited 18-Feb-12]. Available from: www.sogc.org/guidelines/public/129E-JCPG-June2003.pdf

23.     Tobias DK, Zhang C, van Dam RM, Bowers K, Hu FB. Physical activity before and during pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan;34(1):223-9.

24.     American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2002, reaffirmed 2007). Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 267. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 99(1): 171–173.

25.     Davies GA, Wolfe LA, Mottola MF, MacKinnon C, Arsenault MY, Bartellas E, Cargill Y, Gleason T, Iglesias S, Klein M, Martel MJ, Roggensack A, Wilson K, Gardiner P, Graham T, Haennel R, Hughson R, MacDougall D, McDermott J, Ross R,Tiidus P, Trudeau F; SOGC Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee, Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Board of Directors. Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Jun;25(6):516-29. [Cited 18-Feb-12]. Available from: www.sogc.org/guidelines/public/129E-JCPG-June2003.pdf

26.     American College of Obstricians and Gynecologists. Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 267. Reaffirmed 2009. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:171-173.

27.     Davies GA, Wolfe LA, Mottola MF, MacKinnon C, Arsenault MY, Bartellas E, Cargill Y, Gleason T, Iglesias S, Klein M, Martel MJ, Roggensack A, Wilson K, Gardiner P, Graham T, Haennel R, Hughson R, MacDougall D, McDermott J, Ross R,Tiidus P, Trudeau F; SOGC Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee, Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Board of Directors. Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Jun;25(6):516-29. [Cited 18-Feb-12]. Available from: www.sogc.org/guidelines/public/129E-JCPG-June2003.pdf

28.     The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Exercise during pregnancy. Frequently asked questions. FAQ 0119. August 2011. [Cited 1-Jan-13]. Available from: www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq119.ashx

29.     Davies GA, Wolfe LA, Mottola MF, MacKinnon C, Arsenault MY, Bartellas E, Cargill Y, Gleason T, Iglesias S, Klein M, Martel MJ, Roggensack A, Wilson K, Gardiner P, Graham T, Haennel R, Hughson R, MacDougall D, McDermott J, Ross R,Tiidus P, Trudeau F; SOGC Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee, Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Board of Directors. Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Jun;25(6):516-29. [Cited 18-Feb-12]. Available from: www.sogc.org/guidelines/public/129E-JCPG-June2003.pdf

30.     The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Exercise during pregnancy. Frequently asked questions. FAQ 0119. August 2011. [Cited 1-Jan-13]. Available from: www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq119.ashx

31.     Davies GA, Wolfe LA, Mottola MF, MacKinnon C, Arsenault MY, Bartellas E, Cargill Y, Gleason T, Iglesias S, Klein M, Martel MJ, Roggensack A, Wilson K, Gardiner P, Graham T, Haennel R, Hughson R, MacDougall D, McDermott J, Ross R,Tiidus P, Trudeau F; SOGC Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee, Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Board of Directors. Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Jun;25(6):516-29. [Cited 18-Feb-12]. Available from: www.sogc.org/guidelines/public/129E-JCPG-June2003.pdf

32.     Davies GA, Wolfe LA, Mottola MF, MacKinnon C, Arsenault MY, Bartellas E, Cargill Y, Gleason T, Iglesias S, Klein M, Martel MJ, Roggensack A, Wilson K, Gardiner P, Graham T, Haennel R, Hughson R, MacDougall D, McDermott J, Ross R,Tiidus P, Trudeau F; SOGC Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee, Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Board of Directors. Exercise in pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Jun;25(6):516-29. [Cited 18-Feb-12]. Available from: www.sogc.org/guidelines/public/129E-JCPG-June2003.pdf

33.     Mottola MF. Exercise and pregnancy: Canadian guidelines for health care professionals. Wellspring. Volume 22(4) June 2011. [Cited 1-Jan-13] Available from: www.centre4activeliving.ca/publications/wellspring/2011/aug-pregnancy.html

34.     Mottola MF. Exercise prescription for overweight and obese women: pregnancy and postpartum. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;36(2):301-16, viii.

35.     Mottola MF, Giroux I, Gratton R, Hammond JA, Hanley A, Harris S, McManus R,Davenport MH, Sopper MM. Nutrition and exercise prevent excess weight gain in overweight pregnant women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Feb;42(2):265-72.

36.     Garfinkel MS, Singhal A, Katz WA, Allan DA, Reshetar R, Schumacher HR Jr. Yoga-based intervention for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA. 1998 Nov 11;280(18):1601-3.

37.     Okonta NR. Does yoga therapy reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension: an integrative review. Holist Nurs Pract. 2012 May-Jun;26(3):137-41.

38.     Smith JA, Greer T, Sheets T, Watson S. Is there more to yoga than exercise? Altern Ther Health Med. 2011 May-Jun;17(3):22-9.

39.     Pennick VE and Young G. Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1998. Issue 3. Updated 2007.

40.     Gjestland K, Bø K, Owe KM, Eberhard-Gran M. Do pregnant women follow exercise guidelines? Prevalence data among 3482 women, and prediction of low-back pain, pelvic girdle pain and depression. Br J Sports Med. 2012 Aug 17.

Chapter 15 – Stocking The Pregnant Kitchen

1.         US Department of Health and Human Services. Policy Research for Front of Package Nutrition Labeling: Environmental Scan and Literature Review. February 2011. [Cited 2-Sep-12]. Available from: aspe.hhs.gov/sp/reports/2011/FOPNutritionLabelingLitRev/index.shtml#3.4.3

2.         U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 10. Appendix B: Additional Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims. May 2011. [Cited 2-Sep-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/GuidanceDocuments/FoodLabelingNutrition/FoodLabelingGuide/ucm064916.htm

3.         U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 9. Appendix A: Definitions of Nutrient Content Claims. July 2011. [Cited 2-Sep-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/GuidanceDocuments/FoodLabelingNutrition/FoodLabelingGuide/ucm064911.htm

4.         Piecha G, Koleganova N, Ritz E, Müller A, Fedorova OV, Bagrov AY, Lutz D, Schirmacher P, Gross-Weissmann ML. High salt intake causes adverse fetal programming—vascular effects beyond blood pressure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Sep;27(9):3464-76. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfs027.

5.         Coimbra TM, Francescato HD, Balbi AP, Marin EC, Costa RS. Renal Development and Blood Pressure in Offspring from Dams Submitted to High-Sodium Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation. Int J Nephrol. 2012;2012:919128.

6.         Koleganova N, Piecha G, Ritz E, Becker LE, Müller A, Weckbach M, Nyengaard JR, Schirmacher P, Gross-Weissmann ML. Both high and low maternal salt intake in pregnancy alter kidney development in the offspring. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011 Aug;301(2):F344-54.

7.         US FDA. Did you know that a store can sell food past the expiration date? Updated April 2012. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/Transparency/Basics/ucm210073.htm

8.         Health Canada. Nutrition labeling. September 2010. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/label-etiquet/nutrition/index-eng.php

9.         Food standards agency. Understanding food labeling rules. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.food.gov.uk/scotland/regsscotland/ull/

10.     Food standards Australia New Zealand. Use by and best before dates. July 2012. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/labellingoffood/usebyandbestbeforeda5593.cfm

11.     US FDA. Did you know that a store can sell food past the expiration date? Updated April 2012. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/Transparency/Basics/ucm210073.htm

12.     USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service: Fact Sheets: Food product dating. September 2011. [Cited 2-Sep-12]. Available from: www.fsis.usda.gov/Factsheets/Food_Product_dating/#2

13.     Egg facts and fun. Julian dates. [Cited 6-Sep-12]. Available from: www.incredibleegg.org/egg-facts/eggcyclopedia/j/julian-dates

14.     USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service: Fact Sheets: Food product dating. September 2011. [Cited 2-Sep-12]. Available from: www.fsis.usda.gov/Factsheets/Food_Product_dating/#2

15.     US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 4 - Equipment, Utensils and Linens. 2009. [Cited 23-Sep-12]. Available from: www.fda.gov/food/foodsafety/retailfoodprotection/foodcode/foodcode2009/ucm188064.htm

16.     Bruhn CM, Rickman JC, Barrett DM PhD, Review Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. J Sci Food Agric 87:930–944 (2007).

17.     Makhlouf J et al. Some nutritional characteristics of beans, sweet corn and peas (raw, canned, and frozen) produced in the province of Quebec. Food Research International. 1995; 28:253-259.

18.     Favell DJ. A comparison of the vitamin C content of fresh and frozen vegetables. Food Chemistry. 1998;62:59-64.

19.     Shi J., LeMaguer M. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing. 2000; 40(1):1-42.

20.     Bruhn CM, Rickman JC, Barrett DM PhD, Review Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. J Sci Food Agric 87:930–944 (2007).

21.     Food Safety Network, University of Guelph. What are safe grilling practices? 2003. [Cited 7-Sep-12]. Available from: www.foodsafety.ksu.edu/articles/533/grilling_factsheet.pdf

22.     Puangsombat K, Jirapakkul W, Smith JS. Inhibitory activity of Asian spices on heterocyclic amines formation in cooked beef patties. J Food Sci. 2011 Oct;76(8):T174-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02338.x.

23.     Consumer Reports: Greener choices, products for a better planet. Get out and grill: healthy cooking tips. July 2010. [Cited 7-Sep-12]. Available from: www.greenerchoices.org/products.cfm?product=0710grilltips

24.     Puangsombat K, Gadgil P, Houser TA, Hunt MC, Smith JS. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products. Meat Sci. 2012 Mar;90(3):739-46.

25.     Puangsombat K, Gadgil P, Houser TA, Hunt MC, Smith JS. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products. Meat Sci. 2012 Mar;90(3):739-46.

26.     Scanlan R. Nitrosamines and cancer. November 2010. [Cited 8-Sep-12]. Available from: lpi.oregonstate.edu/f-w00/nitrosamine.html

27.     Food Additives. Center for Science in the Public Interest. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm

28.     Food Additives. Center for Science in the Public Interest. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm

29.     Pogoda JM, Preston-Martin S. Maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and risk of paediatric brain tumour in offspring: potentially harmful levels of intake. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Apr;4(2):183-9.

30.     Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. A meta-analysis of maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and the risk of childhood brain tumors. Neuroepidemiology. 2004 Jan-Apr;23(1-2):78-84.

31.     Pogoda JM, Preston-Martin S, Howe G, Lubin F, Mueller BA, Holly EA, Filippini G, Peris-Bonet R, McCredie MR, Cordier S, Choi W. An international case-control study of maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk: a histology-specific analysis by food group. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Mar;19(3):148-60. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.12.011.

32.     US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitrates and Nitrites, Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children. May 2007. [Cited 3-Jan-13]. Available from: www.epa.gov/teach/chem_summ/Nitrates_summary.pdf

33.     Gougeon R. Spidel M, Lee K, Field CJ. Canadian Diabetes Association National Nutrition Committee Technical Review: Non-nutritive Intense Sweeteners in Diabetes Management. Can J Diab. 2004 (28) 4:385-389.

34.     Gougeon R. Spidel M, Lee K, Field CJ. Canadian Diabetes Association National Nutrition Committee Technical Review: Non-nutritive Intense Sweeteners in Diabetes Management. Can J Diab. 2004 (28) 4:385-389.

35.     Food Additives. Center for Science in the Public Interest. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm

36.     United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Marketing Department. National organic program. June 2012. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/nop

37.     United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Marketing Department. National organic program. June 2012. [Cited 12-Aug-12]. Available from: www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateC&navID=NationalOrganicProgram&leftNav=NationalOrganicProgram&page=NOPConsumers&description=Consumers&acct=nopgeninfo

38.     Bouchard MF, Chevrier J, Harley KG, Kogut K, Vedar M, Calderon N, Trujillo C, Johnson C, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Aug;119(8):1189-95. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003185.

39.     Eskenazi B, Rosas LG, Marks AR, Bradman A, Harley K, Holland N, Johnson C, Fenster L, Barr DB. Pesticide toxicity and the developing brain. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Feb;102(2):228-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2007.00171.x.40 The Organic Center. Today’s Science Insight. April 2011. [Cited 8-Sep-12]. Available from: www.organiccenter.org/dailylog.php?action=detail&dailylogId=65&categoryId=2

40.     Benbrook C, Zhao X, Yanez J, Davies N, Andrews P. New Evidence Confirms the Nutritional Superiority of Plant-Based Organic Foods. State of Science Review. The Organic Center. March 2008. [Cited 8-Sep-12]. Available from: www.organic-center.org/science.nutri.php?action=view&report_id=126

41.     Brandt K, L eifert C, Sanderson R, Seal CJ. Agroecosystem Management and Nutritional Quality of Plant Foods: The Case of Organic Fruits and Vegetables. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 2011; (30)1-2. DOI:10.1080/07352689.2011.554417

42.     Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter GE, Bavinger JC, Pearson M, Eschbach PJ,Sundaram V, Liu H, Schirmer P, Stave C, Olkin I, Bravata DM. Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):348-66. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00007.

43.     Environmental Working Group. 2012 Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce. June 2012. [Cited 8-Sep-12]. Available from: www.ewg.org/foodnews/list/

Chapter 16 – Eating Out

1.         US Food and Drug Administration. Overview of FDA Proposed Labeling Requirements for Restaurants, Similar Retail Food Establishments and Vending Machines. November 2012. [Cited 3-Jan-13]. Available from: www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/ucm248732.htm

2.         Goulding, M. The 20 worst foods in American. Men’s Health Magazine. 2008. [Cited 17-Aug-12]. Available from: www.menshealth.com/20worst/worstfood.html

3.         What is Food with Integrity? [Cited 8-18-12]. Available from www.chipotle.com/en-US/fwi/fwi.aspx